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Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 2012
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (95th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (83rd percentile)

Mentioned by

blogs
2 blogs
twitter
7 tweeters
facebook
2 Facebook pages

Citations

dimensions_citation
55 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
85 Mendeley
citeulike
2 CiteULike
Title
Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 2012
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1106877109
Pubmed ID
Authors

C. Hvilsom, Y. Qian, T. Bataillon, Y. Li, T. Mailund, B. Salle, F. Carlsen, R. Li, H. Zheng, T. Jiang, H. Jiang, X. Jin, K. Munch, A. Hobolth, H. R. Siegismund, J. Wang, M. H. Schierup

Abstract

Surveying genome-wide coding variation within and among species gives unprecedented power to study the genetics of adaptation, in particular the proportion of amino acid substitutions fixed by positive selection. Additionally, contrasting the autosomes and the X chromosome holds information on the dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much as 30% of all amino acid replacements being adaptive. Adaptive evolution is barely detectable on the autosomes except for a few striking cases of recent selective sweeps associated with immunity gene clusters. We also find much stronger purifying selection than observed in humans, and in contrast to humans, we find that purifying selection is stronger on the X chromosome than on the autosomes in chimpanzees. We therefore conclude that most adaptive mutations are recessive. We also document dramatically reduced synonymous diversity in the chimpanzee X chromosome relative to autosomes and stronger purifying selection than for the human X chromosome. If similar processes were operating in the human-chimpanzee ancestor as in central chimpanzees today, our results therefore provide an explanation for the much-discussed reduction in the human-chimpanzee divergence at the X chromosome.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 7 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 85 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 5 6%
Germany 2 2%
Portugal 1 1%
Denmark 1 1%
Spain 1 1%
Romania 1 1%
Unknown 74 87%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 34 40%
Researcher 21 25%
Student > Master 6 7%
Professor > Associate Professor 6 7%
Other 5 6%
Other 13 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 69 81%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 9%
Unspecified 3 4%
Computer Science 1 1%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 1%
Other 3 4%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 22. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 December 2012.
All research outputs
#640,173
of 12,563,878 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#11,565
of 78,064 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#8,912
of 215,622 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#130
of 808 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,563,878 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 78,064 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 22.5. This one has done well, scoring higher than 85% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 215,622 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 808 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its contemporaries.