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CSF complement 3 and factor H are staging biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease

Overview of attention for article published in Acta Neuropathologica Communications, February 2016
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (83rd percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
1 tweeter
1 Facebook page


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80 Mendeley
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CSF complement 3 and factor H are staging biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease
Published in
Acta Neuropathologica Communications, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40478-016-0277-8
Pubmed ID

William T. Hu, Kelly D. Watts, Prashant Tailor, Trung P. Nguyen, Jennifer C. Howell, Raven C. Lee, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Marla Gearing, Chadwick M. Hales, Allan I. Levey, James J. Lah, Eva K. Lee


CSF levels of established Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers remain stable despite disease progression, and non-amyloid non-tau biomarkers have the potential of informing disease stage and progression. We previously identified complement 3 (C3) to be decreased in AD dementia, but this change was not found by others in earlier AD stages. We hypothesized that levels of C3 and associated factor H (FH) can potentially distinguish between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia stages of AD, but we also found their levels to be influenced by age and disease status. We developed a biochemical/bioinformatics pipeline to optimize the handling of complex interactions between variables in validating biochemical markers of disease. We used data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuro-imaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 230) to build parallel machine learning models, and objectively tested the models in a test cohort (n = 73) of MCI and mild AD patients independently recruited from Emory University. Whereas models incorporating age, gender, APOE ε4 status, and CSF amyloid and tau levels failed to reliably distinguish between MCI and mild AD in ADNI, introduction of CSF C3 and FH levels reproducibly improved the distinction between the two AD stages in ADNI (p < 0.05) and the Emory cohort (p = 0.014). Within each AD stage, the final model also distinguished between fast vs. slower decliners (p < 0.001 for MCI, p = 0.007 for mild AD), with lower C3 and FH levels associated with more advanced disease and faster progression. We propose that CSF C3 and FH alterations may reflect stage-associated biomarker changes in AD, and can complement clinician diagnosis in diagnosing and staging AD using the publically available ADNI database as reference.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 80 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Australia 1 1%
Unknown 79 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 18%
Student > Master 13 16%
Researcher 10 13%
Other 6 8%
Student > Bachelor 6 8%
Other 12 15%
Unknown 19 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 17 21%
Medicine and Dentistry 12 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 6%
Psychology 4 5%
Other 10 13%
Unknown 23 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 10. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 March 2016.
All research outputs
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Outputs from Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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Altmetric has tracked 16,578,610 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 87th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,012 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 10.9. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 56% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,083 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them