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Spatially aggregated clusters and scattered smaller loci of elevated malaria vector density and human infection prevalence in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, March 2016
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Mentioned by

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3 tweeters

Citations

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12 Dimensions

Readers on

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49 Mendeley
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Title
Spatially aggregated clusters and scattered smaller loci of elevated malaria vector density and human infection prevalence in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Published in
Malaria Journal, March 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12936-016-1186-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Victoria M. Mwakalinga, Benn K. D. Sartorius, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Daniel F. Msellemu, Alex J. Limwagu, Zawadi D. Mageni, John M. Paliga, Nicodem J. Govella, Maureen Coetzee, Gerry F. Killeen, Stefan Dongus

Abstract

Malaria transmission, primarily mediated by Anopheles gambiae, persists in Dar es Salaam (DSM) despite high coverage with bed nets, mosquito-proofed housing and larviciding. New or improved vector control strategies are required to eliminate malaria from DSM, but these will only succeed if they are delivered to the minority of locations where residual transmission actually persists. Hotspots of spatially clustered locations with elevated malaria infection prevalence or vector densities were, therefore, mapped across the city in an attempt to provide a basis for targeting supplementary interventions. Two phases of a city-wide population-weighted random sample of cross-sectional household surveys of malaria infections were complemented by two matching phases of geographically overlapping, high-resolution, longitudinal vector density surveys; spanning 2010-2013. Spatial autocorrelations were explored using Moran's I and hotspots were detected using flexible spatial scan statistics. Seven hotspots of spatially clustered elevated vector density and eight of malaria infection prevalence were detected over both phases. Only a third of vectors were collected in hotspots in phase 1 (30 %) and phase 2 (33 %). Malaria prevalence hotspots accounted for only half of malaria infections detected in phase 1 (55 %) and phase 2 (47 %). Three quarters (76 % in phase 1 and 74 % in phase 2) of survey locations with detectable vector populations were outside of hotspots. Similarly, more than half of locations with higher infection prevalence (>10 %) occurred outside of hotspots (51 % in phase 1 and 54 % in phase 2). Vector proliferation hazard (exposure to An. gambiae) and malaria infection risk were only very loosely associated with each other (Odds ratio (OR) [95 % Confidence Interval (CI)] = 1.56 [0.89, 1.78], P = 0.52)). Many small, scattered loci of local malaria transmission were haphazardly scattered across the city, so interventions targeting only currently identifiable spatially aggregated hotspots will have limited impact. Routine, spatially comprehensive, longitudinal entomological and parasitological surveillance systems, with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to detect these scattered loci, are required to eliminate transmission from this typical African city. Intervention packages targeted to both loci and hotspots of transmission will need to suppress local vector proliferation, treat infected residents and provide vulnerable residents with supplementary protective measures against exposure.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 49 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 2%
United States 1 2%
Brazil 1 2%
Unknown 46 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 14 29%
Researcher 7 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 10%
Professor 3 6%
Student > Bachelor 3 6%
Other 7 14%
Unknown 10 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Nursing and Health Professions 9 18%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 10%
Computer Science 3 6%
Environmental Science 2 4%
Other 5 10%
Unknown 17 35%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 March 2016.
All research outputs
#4,447,349
of 9,183,188 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#2,006
of 3,184 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#135,141
of 291,244 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#119
of 191 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,183,188 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,184 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.1. This one is in the 33rd percentile – i.e., 33% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 291,244 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 191 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.