Amazonia has been a focus of interest since the early days of biogeography as an intrinsically complex and extremely diverse region. This region comprises an intricate mosaic that includes diverse types of forest formations, flooded environments and open vegetation. Increased knowledge about the distribution of species in Amazonia has led to the recognition of complex biogeographic patterns. The confrontation of these biogeographic patterns with information on the geological and climatic history of the region has generated several hypotheses dedicated to explain the origin of the biological diversity. Genomic information, coupled with knowledge of Earth's history, especially the evolution of the Amazonian landscape, presents fascinating possibilities for understanding the mechanisms that govern the origin and maintenance of diversity patterns in one of the most diverse regions of the world. For this we will increasingly need more intense and coordinated interactions between researchers studying biotic diversification and the evolution of landscapes. From the interaction between these two fields of knowledge that are in full development, an increasingly detailed understanding of the historical mechanisms related to the origin of the species will surely arise.