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Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways

Overview of attention for article published in Injury Epidemiology, April 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (69th percentile)

Mentioned by

6 tweeters
1 Facebook page


12 Dimensions

Readers on

44 Mendeley
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Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways
Published in
Injury Epidemiology, April 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40621-016-0074-7
Pubmed ID

Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C. Pressley


While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932). Statistical analysis was based on Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Associations of restraint use and other outcomes with alcohol and drug use were measured by estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). More than half (54.8 %) of the study population were positive for drugs or alcohol at the time of crash. Approximately half of drivers were belted, but this varied from 67.1 % (unimpaired) to 33.0 % (drugs plus alcohol). Compared to the unimpaired, the odds of a driver being unbelted varied: alcohol and cannabis (OR 3.70, 95 % CI 3.44-3.97), alcohol only (3.50,3.36-3.65), stimulants (2.13,1.91-2.38), depressants (2.09,1.89-2.31), narcotics (1.84,1.67-2.02) and cannabis only (1.55,1.43-1.67). Compared to belted drivers, unbelted drivers were over 4 times more likely to die. Driving violations varied across drug/drug alcohol combinations. Speed-related violations were higher for drivers positive for stimulants, alcohol, cannabis, and cannabis plus alcohol, with a more than two fold increase for alcohol and cannabis (2.36, 2.05, 2.71). Mechanisms through which drugs, alcohol and substance combinations produce increased risks to occupant safety include lowered restraint use and increases in risky driving behaviors, including speeding, lane, passing, turning and signal/sign violations.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 6 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 44 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Vietnam 1 2%
Unknown 43 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 7 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 11%
Student > Master 5 11%
Professor 4 9%
Other 4 9%
Other 9 20%
Unknown 10 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 9 20%
Psychology 6 14%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 9%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 7%
Engineering 2 5%
Other 5 11%
Unknown 15 34%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 May 2016.
All research outputs
of 13,816,277 outputs
Outputs from Injury Epidemiology
of 155 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 262,698 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Injury Epidemiology
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,816,277 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 72nd percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 155 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 39.3. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 262,698 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 69% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them