Subchronic Oral Cadmium Exposure Exerts both Stimulatory and Suppressive Effects on Pulmonary Inflammation/Immune Reactivity in Rats.
Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES, July 2019
Kulas, Jelena, Ninkov, Marina, Tucovic, Dina, Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra, Ukropina, Mirela, Cakic Milosevic, Maja, Mutic, Jelena, Kataranovski, Milena, Mikrov, Ivana
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral cadmium (Cd) ingestion on the pulmonary immune response. Determination of Cd content in lungs and histopathological evaluation of the tissue was performed in rats following 30-day oral Cd administration (5 and 50 mg/L). Antioxidant enzyme defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase), cell infiltration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and various cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] were investigated. Cd caused tissue damage and cell infiltration in the lungs, and this damage was more pronounced at higher doses. Cd deposition resulted in lung inflammation characterized by a dose-dependent IL-1β increase in lung homogenates, increased TNF levels at both doses, and IL-6 stimulation at low doses with inhibition observed at higher doses. Cd exerted differential effects on lung leukocytes isolated by enzyme digestion, and these effects were characterized by a lack of change in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an inhibition of IL-1β and TNF, and stimulation of MPO and IFN-γ. The higher capacity of Cd-exposed lung cells to respond to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis was demonstrated in vitro. The potential of ingested Cd to exert both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on pulmonary tissue inflammation and immune reactivity highlights the complex immunomodulatory actions of this metal.
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