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Why does the flower stalk of Pulsatilla cernua (Ranunculaceae) bend during anthesis?

Overview of attention for article published in American Journal of Botany, October 2002
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Title
Why does the flower stalk of Pulsatilla cernua (Ranunculaceae) bend during anthesis?
Published in
American Journal of Botany, October 2002
DOI 10.3732/ajb.89.10.1599
Pubmed ID
Authors

Shuang-Quan Huang, Yoshitaka Takahashi, Amots Dafni

Abstract

Flower stalks of Pulsatilla cernua, an early spring herb in north temperate Asia, changed position from erect to pendulous and back to erect during 6-10 d anthesis. We tested three possible explanations for this movement. Our results showed that (1) this movement is unlikely to be a mechanism to attract pollinators or enhance pollen output, because no pollinator preference was observed between erect and pendulous flowers and we found no buzz-pollination in this species; (2) hand self-pollination yielded higher seed set than open pollination in the field, but spontaneous selfing rarely occurred. Among open-pollinated flowers, seed set was depressed by emasculation, indicating that in the presence of insects, self-pollen provided reproductive assurance in this protogynous and self-compatible species. However, the change in flower orientation cannot be explained as reproductive assurance in that even self-pollination largely depended on pollinator visits rather than gravity. (3) A pollen germination experiment indicated that pollen damage by water is serious in this species. We deduced that the bending of the flower stalk during anthesis was to avoid rain damage to pollen grains in this species. During the 3-6 d period of pollen presentation, the petals elongated and were covered with unwettable hairs. Together with flower stalk movement, this was enough to protect the organs inside the flower from rain. This movement of the flower stalk seems to be important to maintain pollen viability in a rainy habitat with a scarcity of pollinators.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 61 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 4 7%
United States 4 7%
Brazil 2 3%
Japan 2 3%
Germany 1 2%
Chile 1 2%
France 1 2%
Serbia 1 2%
Poland 1 2%
Other 4 7%
Unknown 40 66%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 25%
Researcher 13 21%
Professor > Associate Professor 9 15%
Professor 5 8%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 8%
Other 14 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 47 77%
Environmental Science 5 8%
Unspecified 4 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 3%
Arts and Humanities 1 2%
Other 2 3%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 April 2016.
All research outputs
#3,897,317
of 7,546,003 outputs
Outputs from American Journal of Botany
#1,621
of 2,069 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#147,082
of 270,297 outputs
Outputs of similar age from American Journal of Botany
#55
of 58 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,546,003 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,069 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.7. This one is in the 14th percentile – i.e., 14% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 270,297 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 58 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 3rd percentile – i.e., 3% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.