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Decreased neuroinflammation correlates to higher vagus nerve activity fluctuations in near-term ovine fetuses: a case for the afferent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway?

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, May 2016
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Title
Decreased neuroinflammation correlates to higher vagus nerve activity fluctuations in near-term ovine fetuses: a case for the afferent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway?
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, May 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12974-016-0567-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

M. G. Frasch, M. Szynkaruk, A. P. Prout, K. Nygard, M. Cao, R. Veldhuizen, R. Hammond, B. S. Richardson

Abstract

Neuroinflammation in utero may contribute to brain injury resulting in life-long neurological disabilities. The pivotal role of the efferent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in controlling inflammation, e.g., by inhibiting the HMGB1 release, via the macrophages' α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been described in adults, but its importance in the fetus is unknown. Moreover, it is unknown whether CAP may also exert anti-inflammatory effects on the brain via the anatomically predominant afferent component of the vagus nerve. We measured microglial activation in the ovine fetal brain near term 24 h after the umbilical cord occlusions mimicking human labor versus controls (no occlusions) by quantifying HMGB1 nucleus-to-cytosol translocation in the Iba1+ and α7nAChR+ microglia. Based on multiple clinical studies in adults and our own work in fetal autonomic nervous system, we gauged the degree of CAP activity in vivo using heart rate variability measure RMSSD that reflects fluctuations in vagus nerve activity. RMSSD correlated to corresponding plasma IL-1β levels at R = 0.57 (p = 0.02, n = 17) and to white matter microglia cell counts at R = -0.89 (p = 0.03). The insult increased the HMGB1 translocation in α7nAChR+ microglia in a brain region-dependent manner (p < 0.001). In parallel, RMSSD at 1 h post insult correlated with cytosolic HMGB1 of thalamic microglia (R = -0.94, p = 0.005), and RMSSD at pH nadir correlated with microglial α7nAChR in the white matter (R = 0.83, p = 0.04). Overall, higher RMSSD values correlated with lower HMGB1 translocation and higher α7nAChR intensity per area in a brain region-specific manner. Afferent fetal CAP may translate increased vagal cholinergic signaling into suppression of cerebral inflammation in response to near-term hypoxic acidemia as might occur during labor. Our findings suggest a new control mechanism of fetal neuroinflammation via the vagus nerve, providing novel possibilities for its non-invasive monitoring in utero and for targeted treatment.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 36 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 36 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 22%
Student > Master 7 19%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 8%
Student > Bachelor 2 6%
Other 2 6%
Other 5 14%
Unknown 9 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 9 25%
Neuroscience 7 19%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 6%
Psychology 2 6%
Engineering 2 6%
Other 5 14%
Unknown 9 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 December 2016.
All research outputs
#8,754,388
of 11,373,241 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#857
of 1,281 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#178,053
of 277,177 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#50
of 67 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,373,241 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,281 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.9. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 277,177 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 30th percentile – i.e., 30% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 67 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 22nd percentile – i.e., 22% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.