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Toddler temperament and prenatal exposure to lead and maternal depression

Overview of attention for article published in Environmental Health, June 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (65th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (53rd percentile)

Mentioned by

5 tweeters
1 Facebook page


15 Dimensions

Readers on

132 Mendeley
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Toddler temperament and prenatal exposure to lead and maternal depression
Published in
Environmental Health, June 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12940-016-0147-7
Pubmed ID

Annemarie Stroustrup, Hsiao-Hsien Hsu, Katherine Svensson, Lourdes Schnaas, Alejandra Cantoral, Maritsa Solano González, Mariana Torres-Calapiz, Chitra Amarasiriwardena, David C. Bellinger, Brent A. Coull, Martha M. Téllez-Rojo, Robert O. Wright, Rosalind J. Wright


Temperament is a psychological construct that reflects both personality and an infant's reaction to social stimuli. It can be assessed early in life and is stable over time Temperament predicts many later life behaviors and illnesses, including impulsivity, emotional regulation and obesity. Early life exposure to neurotoxicants often results in developmental deficits in attention, social function, and IQ, but environmental predictors of infant temperament are largely unknown. We propose that prenatal exposure to both chemical and non-chemical environmental toxicants impacts the development of temperament, which can itself be used as a marker of risk for maladaptive neurobehavior in later life. In this study, we assessed associations among prenatal and early life exposure to lead, mercury, poverty, maternal depression and toddler temperament. A prospective cohort of women living in the Mexico City area were followed longitudinally beginning in the second trimester of pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to lead (blood, bone), mercury, and maternal depression were assessed repeatedly and the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) was completed when the child was 24 months old. The association between each measure of prenatal exposure and performance on individual TTS subscales was evaluated by multivariable linear regression. Latent profile analysis was used to classify subjects by TTS performance. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate the prospective association between prenatal exposures and TTS performance. 500 mother-child pairs completed the TTS and had complete data on exposures and covariates. Three latent profiles were identified and categorized as predominantly difficult, intermediate, or easy temperament. Prenatal exposure to maternal depression predicted increasing probability of difficult toddler temperament. Maternal bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, also predicted difficult temperament. Prenatal lead exposure modified this association, suggesting that joint exposure in pregnancy to both was most toxic. Maternal depression predicts difficult temperament and concurrent prenatal exposure to maternal depression and lead predicts a more difficult temperament phenotype in 2 year olds. The role of temperament as an intermediate variable in the path from prenatal exposures to neurobehavioral deficits and other health effects deserves further study.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 5 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 132 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 132 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 21 16%
Researcher 18 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 17 13%
Student > Bachelor 16 12%
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 8%
Other 27 20%
Unknown 22 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 29 22%
Psychology 26 20%
Nursing and Health Professions 13 10%
Environmental Science 9 7%
Neuroscience 6 5%
Other 22 17%
Unknown 27 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 08 February 2017.
All research outputs
of 9,031,633 outputs
Outputs from Environmental Health
of 893 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 251,025 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Environmental Health
of 28 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,031,633 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 60th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 893 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 19.6. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 251,025 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 65% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 28 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its contemporaries.