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The global intellectual property ecosystem for insulin and its public health implications: an observational study

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, July 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#15 of 209)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)

Mentioned by

policy
1 policy source
twitter
24 tweeters
facebook
1 Facebook page

Citations

dimensions_citation
7 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
43 Mendeley
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Title
The global intellectual property ecosystem for insulin and its public health implications: an observational study
Published in
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, July 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40545-016-0072-8
Pubmed ID
Authors

Warren A. Kaplan, Reed F. Beall

Abstract

Lack of access to insulin and poor health outcomes are issues for both low and high income countries. This has been accompanied by a shift from relatively inexpensive human insulin to its more expensive analogs, marketed by three to four main global players. Nonetheless, patent-based market exclusivities are beginning to expire there for the first generation insulin analogs. This paper adds a global dimension to information on the U.S. patent landscape for insulin by reviewing the patent status of insulins with emphasis on the situation outside the US and Europe. Using the term "insulin", we searched for patents listed on the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) Orange Book and the Canadian Online Drug Product Database Online Query and its Patent Register. With this information, we expanded the search globally using the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) PatentScope database, the European Patent Office's INPADOC database and various country-specific Patent Offices. Patent protected insulins marketed in the U.S. and other countries are facing an imminent patent-expiration "cliff' yet the three companies that dominate the global insulin market are continuing to file for patents in and outside the U.S, but very rarely in Africa. Only a few local producers in the so-called "pharmerging" markets (e.g., Brazil, India, China) are filing for global patent protection on their own insulins. There is moderate, but statistically significant association between patent filings and diabetes disease burden. The global market dominance by a few companies of analog over human insulin will likely continue even though patents on the current portfolio of insulin analogs will expire very soon. Multinationals are continuing to file for more insulin patents in the bigger markets with large disease burdens and a rapidly emerging middle class. Off-patent human insulins can effectively manage diabetes. A practical way forward would be find (potential) generic manufacturers globally and nudge them towards opportunities to diversify their national insulin markets with acceptable off-patent products for export.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 24 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 43 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 43 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 10 23%
Researcher 6 14%
Student > Bachelor 5 12%
Other 4 9%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 9%
Other 9 21%
Unknown 5 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 12%
Business, Management and Accounting 4 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 7%
Arts and Humanities 3 7%
Other 10 23%
Unknown 11 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 21. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 January 2020.
All research outputs
#909,981
of 15,184,690 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
#15
of 209 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#23,077
of 265,236 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,184,690 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 209 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,236 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them