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Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

Overview of attention for article published in Revista de Saúde Pública, January 2016
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Title
Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis
Published in
Revista de Saúde Pública, January 2016
DOI 10.1590/s1518-8787.2016050005965
Pubmed ID
Authors

Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini, Guirado, Marluci Monteiro, Dibo, Margareth Regina, Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco, Chiaravalloti, Francisco

Abstract

To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to prevent the disease from spreading throughout the whole territory of São Paulo or to at least reducing its expansion speed. Avaliar, no espaço e espaço-tempo, a ocorrência da leishmaniose visceral em humanos no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Considerou-se como população de estudo os casos autóctones e óbitos por leishmaniose visceral em humanos ocorridos em São Paulo entre 1999 e 2013 e, como área de estudo, a região oeste do estado. Construíram-se mapas temáticos que mostraram a disseminação da leishmaniose visceral em humanos nos municípios. Ferramentas de análise espacial Kernel e razão Kernel foram utilizadas para obter, respectivamente, a distribuição dos casos e óbitos e a distribuição da incidência e mortalidade. Utilizaram-se estatísticas de varredura para identificar aglomerados espaciais e espaço-temporais de casos e óbitos. Os casos de leishmaniose visceral em humanos, no período de estudo, ocorreram na parte ocidental de São Paulo e sua expansão territorial seguiu principalmente o curso da rodovia Marechal Rondon, no sentido oeste-leste. As incidências foram caracterizadas como duas sequências de elipses concêntricas com intensidade decrescente. A primeira, com maior intensidade, teve epicentro no município de Castilho (cruzamento da rodovia Marechal Rondon com a divisa com o estado de Mato Grosso do Sul) e a segunda, em Bauru. A mortalidade apresentou comportamento similar ao da incidência. Os aglomerados espaciais e espaço-temporais de casos coincidiram com as duas áreas de maiores incidências. Ambos os aglomerados espaço-temporais identificados, mesmo sem coincidirem temporalmente, tiveram início após três anos da detecção dos casos humanos e tiveram a mesma duração, seis anos. A expansão da leishmaniose visceral em São Paulo vem ocorrendo no sentido oeste-leste, com destaque ao papel das rodovias, especialmente a Marechal Rondon, neste processo. A análise espaço-temporal detectou, em diferentes espaços e períodos de tempo, ciclicidade na ocorrência da doença. Esses encontros, se considerados, podem colaborar para a adoção de ações que visem a evitar que a doença se espalhe por todo o território paulista ou, no mínimo, diminuir sua velocidade de expansão.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 100 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 100 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 22 22%
Student > Master 19 19%
Student > Postgraduate 7 7%
Student > Doctoral Student 7 7%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 5%
Other 13 13%
Unknown 27 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 16 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 11 11%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 7%
Nursing and Health Professions 6 6%
Other 18 18%
Unknown 32 32%