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Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

Overview of attention for article published in Behavioral and Brain Functions, December 2012
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#12 of 253)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (91st percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
twitter
1 tweeter
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1 Facebook page
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1 Google+ user

Readers on

mendeley
113 Mendeley
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Title
Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD
Published in
Behavioral and Brain Functions, December 2012
DOI 10.1186/1744-9081-5-7
Pubmed ID
Authors

Espen Borgå Johansen, Peter R Killeen, Vivienne A Russell, Gail Tripp, Jeff R Wickens, Rosemary Tannock, Jonathan Williams, Terje Sagvolden

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 113 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 2 2%
South Africa 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Finland 1 <1%
Germany 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
Unknown 106 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 25 22%
Student > Ph. D. Student 21 19%
Student > Doctoral Student 16 14%
Professor 8 7%
Student > Master 8 7%
Other 24 21%
Unknown 11 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 55 49%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 12%
Medicine and Dentistry 10 9%
Neuroscience 7 6%
Arts and Humanities 2 2%
Other 5 4%
Unknown 20 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 13. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 April 2014.
All research outputs
#227,457
of 3,635,018 outputs
Outputs from Behavioral and Brain Functions
#12
of 253 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#23,034
of 275,911 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Behavioral and Brain Functions
#1
of 12 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 3,635,018 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 253 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 275,911 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 12 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.