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Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

Overview of attention for article published in Biology of Sex Differences, September 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (78th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
twitter
2 tweeters

Readers on

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35 Mendeley
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Title
Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis
Published in
Biology of Sex Differences, September 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13293-016-0090-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

Charles P. Madenjian, Richard R. Rediske, David P. Krabbenhoft, Martin A. Stapanian, Sergei M. Chernyak, James P. O’Keefe, Madenjian, Charles P, Rediske, Richard R, Krabbenhoft, David P, Stapanian, Martin A, Chernyak, Sergei M, O'Keefe, James P

Abstract

A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher vertebrates including humans. Our synthesis findings will be useful in (1) developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish, (2) developing sex-specific risk assessment models for exposure of humans and wildlife to contaminants, and (3) refining Hg mass balance models for fish and higher vertebrates.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 35 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 35 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 8 23%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 23%
Student > Bachelor 6 17%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 9%
Professor > Associate Professor 2 6%
Other 4 11%
Unknown 4 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 31%
Environmental Science 10 29%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 11%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 3%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 3%
Other 1 3%
Unknown 7 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 8. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 July 2019.
All research outputs
#2,582,401
of 15,549,197 outputs
Outputs from Biology of Sex Differences
#97
of 310 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#55,698
of 266,461 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Biology of Sex Differences
#2
of 13 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,549,197 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 83rd percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 310 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 19.3. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 68% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 266,461 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 78% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 13 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.