Impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and booster on COVID-19 symptom severity over time in the COVID-OUT trial
Clinical Infectious Diseases, September 2022
David R Boulware, Thomas A Murray, Jennifer L Proper, Christopher J Tignanelli, John B Buse, David M Liebovitz, Jacinda M Nicklas, Kenneth Cohen, Michael A Puskarich, Hrishikesh K Belani, Lianne K Siegel, Nichole R Klatt, David J Odde, Amy B Karger, Nicholas E Ingraham, Katrina M Hartman, Via Rao, Aubrey A Hagen, Barkha Patel, Sarah L Fenno, Nandini Avula, Neha V Reddy, Spencer M Erickson, Sarah Lindberg, Regina Fricton, Samuel Lee, Adnin Zaman, Hanna G Saveraid, Walker J Tordsen, Matthew F Pullen, Nancy E Sherwood, Jared D Huling, Carolyn T Bramante
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has decreasing protection from acquiring any infection with emergence of new variants; however, vaccination continues to protect against progression to severe COVID-19. The impact of vaccination status on symptoms over time is less clear. Within a randomized trial on early outpatient COVID-19 therapy testing metformin, ivermectin, and/or fluvoxamine, participants recorded symptoms daily for 14 days. Participants were given a paper symptom diary allowing them to circle the severity of 14 symptoms as none (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3). This is a secondary analysis of clinical trial data on symptom severity over time using generalized estimating equations comparing those unvaccinated, SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated with primary vaccine series only, or vaccine-boosted. The parent clinical trial prospectively enrolled 1323 participants, of whom 1062 (80%) prospectively recorded some daily symptom data. Of these, 480 (45%) were unvaccinated, 530 (50%) were vaccinated with primary series only, and 52 (5%) vaccine-boosted. Overall symptom severity was least for the vaccine-boosted group and most severe for unvaccinated at baseline and over the 14 days (P < 0.001). Individual symptoms were least severe in the vaccine-boosted group including: cough, chills, fever, nausea, fatigue, myalgia, headache, and diarrhea, as well as smell and taste abnormalities. Results were consistent over delta and omicron variant time periods. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-boosted participants had the least severe symptoms during COVID-19 which abated the quickest over time.
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