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The Blood-Brain Barrier as a Cause of Obesity

Overview of attention for article published in Current Pharmaceutical Design, June 2008
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#14 of 2,864)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
5 news outlets
blogs
5 blogs
patent
1 patent

Citations

dimensions_citation
78 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
65 Mendeley
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Title
The Blood-Brain Barrier as a Cause of Obesity
Published in
Current Pharmaceutical Design, June 2008
DOI 10.2174/138161208784705496
Pubmed ID
Authors

William Banks

Abstract

The dramatic increase in the number of obese and overweight persons has spurred interest in control of appetite, body weight, and adiposity. Leptin is the humoral component of a negative feedback loop between adipose tissue and brain. Leptin is secreted from fat in proportion to the degree of adiposity, is transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and acts in the brain to decrease appetite and increase thermogenesis, actions that ultimately decrease adiposity. However, leptin fails as an adipostat because leptin resistance arises in obesity. The BBB transporter is the first part of the feedback loop to fail, producing the so called "peripheral resistance" to leptin. In this sense, obesity is a disease of the BBB. Failure of leptin as an adipostat raises the question of what its primary role is as does its effects on reproduction, bone, immunity, breathing, cognition, and neurogenesis. Kinetics analysis shows that the BBB transporter performs most efficiently at low serum levels of leptin, suggesting that the feedback loop evolved to operate at lower leptin levels than those seen in ideal body weight. We suggest that low levels of serum leptin inform the brain that adipose reserves are adequate to expend calories on functions other than feeding, such as reproduction and the immune system. This feedback loop is short-circuited when an animal enters starvation. Hallmarks of starvation include decreased secretion of leptin by adipose tissue and hypertriglyceridemia. Triglycerides inhibit the transport of leptin across the BBB, thus attenuating the leptin signal across the BBB and providing a mechanism for peripheral leptin resistance. Triglycerides are elevated in both starvation and obesity. We postulate that hypertriglyceridemia evolved as a starvation signal to the brain that acts in part to inhibit the transport of the leptin across the BBB. The hypertriglyceridemia of obesity invokes this aspect of the starvation response, inducing leptin resistance at the BBB. Thus, the BBB plays important roles in both obesity and starvation.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 65 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 5%
Portugal 1 2%
Germany 1 2%
Unknown 60 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 23%
Researcher 10 15%
Student > Bachelor 8 12%
Student > Master 6 9%
Professor 6 9%
Other 12 18%
Unknown 8 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 18 28%
Medicine and Dentistry 12 18%
Neuroscience 4 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 6%
Psychology 4 6%
Other 12 18%
Unknown 11 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 78. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 29 June 2017.
All research outputs
#251,958
of 14,738,308 outputs
Outputs from Current Pharmaceutical Design
#14
of 2,864 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#2,332
of 151,075 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Current Pharmaceutical Design
#1
of 55 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,738,308 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,864 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.7. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 151,075 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 55 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.