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Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

Overview of attention for article published in American Journal of Primatology, January 1999
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About this Attention Score

  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (69th percentile)

Mentioned by

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1 policy source
twitter
1 tweeter

Citations

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65 Dimensions

Readers on

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195 Mendeley
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Title
Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness
Published in
American Journal of Primatology, January 1999
DOI 10.1002/(sici)1098-2345(1999)48:1<49::aid-ajp4>3.0.co;2-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Sue Boinski, Sonya P. Swing, Timothy S. Gross, Jerry K. Davis

Abstract

No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol was significantly predicted by the proportions of both normal and abnormal behaviors; as the proportion of normal behaviors increased, the plasma cortisol measures decreased. Plasma cortisol weekly group means were also significantly and positively predicted by fecal cortisol weekly group means, but no behavioral measure significantly predicted fecal cortisol weekly group means. In sum, these findings argue strongly that access to a variety of toy and foraging enrichment positively affects behavioral and physiological responses to stress and enhances psychological well-being in singly housed brown capuchins.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 195 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 4 2%
United States 3 2%
South Africa 3 2%
United Kingdom 3 2%
Switzerland 2 1%
Germany 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
Czechia 1 <1%
Mexico 1 <1%
Other 1 <1%
Unknown 175 90%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 39 20%
Student > Master 35 18%
Student > Bachelor 32 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 26 13%
Professor 11 6%
Other 37 19%
Unknown 15 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 109 56%
Psychology 16 8%
Environmental Science 14 7%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 11 6%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 4%
Other 17 9%
Unknown 20 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 February 2018.
All research outputs
#4,867,868
of 17,367,552 outputs
Outputs from American Journal of Primatology
#625
of 1,592 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#119,896
of 397,259 outputs
Outputs of similar age from American Journal of Primatology
#23
of 30 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 17,367,552 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 70th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,592 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 9.9. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 59% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 397,259 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 69% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 30 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.