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In vitro rescue of genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis from interferon-γ and tryptophan depletion with indole-positive, but not indole-negative Prevotella spp.

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, December 2016
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Title
In vitro rescue of genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis from interferon-γ and tryptophan depletion with indole-positive, but not indole-negative Prevotella spp.
Published in
BMC Microbiology, December 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12866-016-0903-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M. Huston, Kuong Taing, Mohammad Katouli, Peter Timms

Abstract

The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cell's pool of tryptophan. Although C. trachomatis is a tryptophan auxotroph, urogenital strains (but not ocular strains) have been shown in vitro to have the ability to produce tryptophan from indole using the tryptophan synthase (trpBA) gene. It has been suggested that indole producing bacteria from the vaginal microbiota could influence the outcome of Chlamydia infection. We used two in vitro models (treatment with IFN-γ or direct limitation of tryptophan), to study the effects of direct rescue by the addition of exogenous indole, or by the addition of culture supernatant from indole-positive versus indole-negative Prevotella strains, on the growth and infectivity of C. trachomatis. We found that only supernatants from the indole-positive strains, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens, were able to rescue tryptophan-starved C. trachomatis. In addition, we analyzed vaginal secretion samples to determine physiological indole concentrations. In spite of the complexity of vaginal secretions, we demonstrated that for some vaginal specimens with higher indole levels, there was a link to higher recovery of the Chlamydia under tryptophan-starved conditions, lending preliminary support to the critical role of the IFN-γ-tryptophan-indole axis in vivo. Our data provide evidence for the ability of both exogenous indole as well as supernatant from indole producing bacteria such as Prevotella, to rescue genital C. trachomatis from tryptophan starvation. This adds weight to the hypothesis that the vaginal microbiota (particularly from women with lower levels of lactobacilli and higher levels of indole producing anaerobes) may be intrinsically linked to the outcome of chlamydial infections in some women.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 53 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 53 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 19%
Student > Master 8 15%
Student > Bachelor 6 11%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 11%
Researcher 4 8%
Other 10 19%
Unknown 9 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 14 26%
Immunology and Microbiology 9 17%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 8%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 4%
Other 8 15%
Unknown 9 17%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 December 2016.
All research outputs
#18,830,858
of 23,337,345 outputs
Outputs from BMC Microbiology
#2,279
of 3,238 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#307,448
of 418,686 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Microbiology
#37
of 51 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 23,337,345 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,238 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.2. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 418,686 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 51 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.