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In vitro rescue of genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis from interferon-γ and tryptophan depletion with indole-positive, but not indole-negative Prevotella spp.

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, December 2016
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Title
In vitro rescue of genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis from interferon-γ and tryptophan depletion with indole-positive, but not indole-negative Prevotella spp.
Published in
BMC Microbiology, December 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12866-016-0903-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M. Huston, Kuong Taing, Mohammad Katouli, Peter Timms

Abstract

The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cell's pool of tryptophan. Although C. trachomatis is a tryptophan auxotroph, urogenital strains (but not ocular strains) have been shown in vitro to have the ability to produce tryptophan from indole using the tryptophan synthase (trpBA) gene. It has been suggested that indole producing bacteria from the vaginal microbiota could influence the outcome of Chlamydia infection. We used two in vitro models (treatment with IFN-γ or direct limitation of tryptophan), to study the effects of direct rescue by the addition of exogenous indole, or by the addition of culture supernatant from indole-positive versus indole-negative Prevotella strains, on the growth and infectivity of C. trachomatis. We found that only supernatants from the indole-positive strains, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens, were able to rescue tryptophan-starved C. trachomatis. In addition, we analyzed vaginal secretion samples to determine physiological indole concentrations. In spite of the complexity of vaginal secretions, we demonstrated that for some vaginal specimens with higher indole levels, there was a link to higher recovery of the Chlamydia under tryptophan-starved conditions, lending preliminary support to the critical role of the IFN-γ-tryptophan-indole axis in vivo. Our data provide evidence for the ability of both exogenous indole as well as supernatant from indole producing bacteria such as Prevotella, to rescue genital C. trachomatis from tryptophan starvation. This adds weight to the hypothesis that the vaginal microbiota (particularly from women with lower levels of lactobacilli and higher levels of indole producing anaerobes) may be intrinsically linked to the outcome of chlamydial infections in some women.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 32 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 32 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 7 22%
Student > Bachelor 6 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 16%
Researcher 4 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 13%
Other 4 13%
Unknown 2 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 9 28%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 13%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 9%
Other 4 13%
Unknown 2 6%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 December 2016.
All research outputs
#7,573,068
of 8,734,076 outputs
Outputs from BMC Microbiology
#1,146
of 1,424 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#242,555
of 299,034 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Microbiology
#38
of 50 outputs
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So far Altmetric has tracked 1,424 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.2. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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