Severity scoring systems for ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury have been used in animal radiation models, human studies involving the use of radiation therapy, and radiation accidents. Various radiation exposure scenarios (i.e., total body irradiation, total abdominal irradiation, etc.) have been used to investigate ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. These radiation-induced GI severity scoring systems are based on clinical signs and symptoms and gastrointestinal-specific biomarkers (i.e., citrulline, etc.). In addition, the time course for radiation-induced changes in blood citrulline levels were compared across various animal (i.e., mice, minipigs, Rhesus Macaque, etc.) and human model systems.
A worksheet tool was developed to prioritize individuals with severe life-threatening gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome, based on the design of the Exposure and Symptom Tool addressing hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome, to rescue individuals from potential gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome injury. This tool provides a triage diagnostic approach to assist first-responders to assess individuals suspected of showing gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome severity to guide medical management, hence enhancing medical readiness for managing radiological casualties.