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Assessing Behavioral Risk Factors Driving Zoonotic Spillover Among High-risk Populations in Myanmar

Overview of attention for article published in EcoHealth, May 2023
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (78th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (60th percentile)

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Assessing Behavioral Risk Factors Driving Zoonotic Spillover Among High-risk Populations in Myanmar
Published in
EcoHealth, May 2023
DOI 10.1007/s10393-023-01636-9
Pubmed ID

Su Yadana, Marc T. Valitutto, Ohnmar Aung, Lee-Ann C. Hayek, Jennifer H. Yu, Theingi Win Myat, Htin Lin, Moh Moh Htun, Hlaing Myat Thu, Emily Hagan, Leilani Francisco, Suzan Murray


The increasing global emergence of zoonoses warrants improved awareness of activities that predispose vulnerable communities to greater risk of disease. Zoonotic disease outbreaks regularly occur within Myanmar and at its borders partly due to insufficient knowledge of behavioral risks, hindering participatory surveillance and reporting. This study employed a behavioral surveillance strategy among high-risk populations to understand the behavioral risks for zoonotic disease transmission in an effort to identify risk factors for pathogen spillover. To explore behavioral mechanisms of spillover in Myanmar, we aimed to: (1) evaluate the details around animal contact and types of interaction, (2) assess the association between self-reported unusual symptoms (i.e., any illness or sickness that is not known or recognized in the community or diagnosed by medical providers) and animal contact activities and (3) identify the potential risk factors including behavioral practices of self-reported illness. Participants were enrolled at two community sites: Hpa-An and Hmawbi in Southern Myanmar. A behavioral questionnaire was administered to understand participants' animal exposures, behaviors and self-reported illnesses. From these responses, associations between (1) animal contact activities and self-reported unusual illnesses, and (2) potential risk factors and self-reported unusual illness were tested. Contact with poultry seemed to be very frequent (91.1%) and many participants reported raising, handling and having poultry in their houses as well as slaughtering or being scratched/bitten by them, followed by contact with rodents (57.8%) and swine (17.9%). Compared to participants who did not have any unusual symptoms, participants who had unusual symptoms in the past year were more likely to have sold dead animals (OR = 13.6, 95% CI 6.8-27.2), slaughtered (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.7-3.3), raised (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.3-5.0) or handled animals (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6), and had eaten sick (OR = 4.4, 95% CI 3.0-6.4) and/or dead animals (OR = 6.0, 95% CI 4.1-8.8) in the same year. Odds of having reported unusual symptoms was higher among those involved in animal production business (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.9-6.2) and animal-involved livelihoods (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.2) compared to other livelihoods. The results suggest that there is a high level of interaction between humans, livestock and wild animals in communities we investigated in Myanmar. The study highlights the specific high-risk behaviors as they relate to animal contact and demographic risk factors for zoonotic spillover. Our findings contribute to human behavioral data needed to develop targeted interventions to prevent zoonotic disease transmission at human-animal interfaces.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 12 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 12 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 12 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Unspecified 4 33%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 8%
Other 1 8%
Unknown 6 50%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 4 33%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 8%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 8%
Unknown 6 50%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 8. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 December 2023.
All research outputs
of 25,385,864 outputs
Outputs from EcoHealth
of 757 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 377,397 outputs
Outputs of similar age from EcoHealth
of 10 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,385,864 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 81st percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 757 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 15.4. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 68% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 377,397 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 78% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 10 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 5 of them.