Between January and August 2012, thirty specimens of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) caught off coast of the municipality of Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil (26° 54' 28″ S and 48° 39' 43″ W) and commercialized in the state of Rio de Janeiro were investigated for the presence of zoonotic nematodes. In total 853 larvae of four nematode parasite species were found. There were three species of Anisakidae: three larvae of Anisakis sp., with prevalence (P) of 10%, mean intensity (MI) of 1.0, mean abundance (MA) of 0.1 and infection site (IS) in the mesentery; five of Terranova sp. with P = 13.3%, MI = 1.25, MA = 0.17, range of infection (RI) from 1 to 2 and IS = mesentery; and seven of Contracaecum sp. with P = 6.6%, MI = 3.5, MA = 0.23, RI = 1 to 4 and IS = mesentery and abdominal cavity. There was one species of Raphidascarididae: 838 larvae of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 83.3%, MI = 33.52, MA = 27.93, RI = 1 to 219 and IS = mesentery, liver serosa and abdominal cavity. This is the first report of larvae of Anisakis sp. and Contracaecum sp in C. guatucupa in Brazil. Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum; Anisakis sp.; Terranova sp.; Contracaecum sp.; Cynoscion guatucupa.