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Avidity of anti-malarial antibodies inversely related to transmission intensity at three sites in Uganda

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, February 2017
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Title
Avidity of anti-malarial antibodies inversely related to transmission intensity at three sites in Uganda
Published in
Malaria Journal, February 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12936-017-1721-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Isaac Ssewanyana, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Richard Sullivan, Moses R. Kamya, Philip J. Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Chris Drakeley, Bryan Greenhouse, Kevin K. A. Tetteh

Abstract

People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was added to measure the relative avidity of antibody responses by ELISA. Within a site, there were no significant differences in median antibody levels between the three age groups. Between sites, median antibody levels were generally higher in the higher transmission sites, with differences more apparent for AMA-1 and in ≥5 year group. Similarly, median avidity index (proportion of high avidity antibodies) showed no significant increase with increasing age but was significantly lower at sites of higher transmission amongst participants ≥5 years of age. Using 5 M GuHCl, the median avidity indices in the ≥5 year group at the highest and lowest transmission sites were 19.9 and 26.8, respectively (p = 0.0002) for MSP1-19 and 12.2 and 17.2 (p = 0.0007) for AMA1. Avidity to two different P. falciparum antigens was lower in areas of high transmission intensity compared to areas with lower transmission. Appreciation of the mechanisms behind these findings as well as their clinical consequences will require additional investigation, ideally utilizing longitudinal data and investigation of a broader array of responses.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 34 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Spain 1 3%
Unknown 33 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 7 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 18%
Student > Master 6 18%
Unspecified 5 15%
Student > Bachelor 4 12%
Other 6 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 8 24%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 21%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 18%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 9%
Other 5 15%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 February 2017.
All research outputs
#4,644,054
of 9,048,564 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#2,134
of 3,151 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#162,130
of 312,268 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#85
of 126 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,048,564 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 46th percentile – i.e., 46% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,151 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.1. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 312,268 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 126 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 24th percentile – i.e., 24% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.