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Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Cross-Species Transmission: Implications for Emergence of New Lentiviral Infections

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Virology, December 2016
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (93rd percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (93rd percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
blogs
1 blog
twitter
21 tweeters

Citations

dimensions_citation
16 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
33 Mendeley
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Title
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Cross-Species Transmission: Implications for Emergence of New Lentiviral Infections
Published in
Journal of Virology, December 2016
DOI 10.1128/jvi.02134-16
Pubmed ID
Authors

Justin Lee, Jennifer L. Malmberg, Britta A. Wood, Sahaja Hladky, Ryan Troyer, Melody Roelke, Mark Cunningham, Roy McBride, Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Erin Boydston, Laurel Serieys, Seth Riley, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude

Abstract

Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- vs. intra-species transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analysis of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrates that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but did not detect selection among twenty PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus, which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates. Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome will occur are complex, and the risk of new virus emergence is therefore difficult to predict. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate transmission, fitness, and adaptation of puma lentivirus A (PLVA) between bobcats and mountain lions in two geographic regions. Our findings illustrate that mountain lion exposure to PLVA is relatively common, but does not routinely result in infections communicable in the new host. This is attributed to efficient species barriers that largely prevent lentiviral adaptation. However, the evolutionary capacity for lentiviruses to adapt to novel environments may ultimately overcome host restriction mechanisms over time and under certain ecological circumstances. This phenomenon provides a unique opportunity to examine cross-species transmission events leading to new lentiviral emergence.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 21 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 33 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
France 1 3%
Unknown 32 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 27%
Researcher 6 18%
Unspecified 4 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 12%
Student > Master 3 9%
Other 7 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 27%
Unspecified 7 21%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 6 18%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 15%
Environmental Science 2 6%
Other 4 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 28. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 April 2019.
All research outputs
#570,897
of 13,243,534 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Virology
#224
of 13,618 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#27,312
of 392,261 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Virology
#12
of 185 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,243,534 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 13,618 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 392,261 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 185 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.