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Antifungal Bacteria on Woodland Salamander Skin Exhibit High Taxonomic Diversity and Geographic Variability

Overview of attention for article published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, February 2017
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (88th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

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31 tweeters

Citations

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8 Dimensions

Readers on

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47 Mendeley
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Title
Antifungal Bacteria on Woodland Salamander Skin Exhibit High Taxonomic Diversity and Geographic Variability
Published in
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, February 2017
DOI 10.1128/aem.00186-17
Pubmed ID
Authors

Carly R. Muletz-Wolz, Graziella V. DiRenzo, Stephanie A. Yarwood, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Robert C. Fleischer, Karen R. Lips

Abstract

Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin, some of which inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, there has been no systematic survey of anti-Bd bacteria across localities, species and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variation in amphibian susceptibility to Bd. Our sites were within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling indicated low Bd prevalence. We determined the number and identity of anti-Bd bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P. cinereus, 15 P. glutinosus, 9 P. cylindraceus) using culturing methods and 16S rDNA sequencing. We sampled co-occurring species at three localities, and P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (700 - 1000 masl) at one locality. We identified 50 anti-Bd bacterial OTUs and found that the degree of Bd inhibition was not correlated with relatedness. Five anti-Bd bacteria occurred on multiple species at multiple localities, but none were shared among all species and localities. Prevalence of anti-Bd bacteria was higher at Shenandoah NP, VA, with 96% (25/26) of salamanders hosting at least one anti-Bd bacteria compared to 50% (7/14) at Catoctin MP, MD and 38% (8/21) at Mt. Rogers NRA, VA. At the individual level, salamanders at Shenandoah NP had more anti-Bd bacteria per individual (μ = 3.3) than those at Catoctin MP (μ = 0.8) and at Mt. Rogers NRA (μ = 0.4). All salamanders tested negative for Bd. Anti-Bd bacteria are diverse in central Appalachian Plethodon salamanders, and their distribution varied geographically. The antifungal bacteria we identified may play a protective role for these salamanders.IMPORTANCE Amphibians harbor skin bacteria that can kill an amphibian fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Some amphibians die from Bd infection, whereas others do not. The bacteria that can kill Bd, called anti-Bd bacteria, are thought to influence Bd infection outcome of the amphibian. Yet, how anti-Bd bacteria vary among amphibian species and populations is unknown. We determined the distribution of anti-Bd bacteria among three salamander species (n = 61) sampled at three localities. We identified 50 unique anti-Bd bacteria, and found that all salamanders were negative for Bd. Five anti-Bd bacteria were commonly detected, suggesting a stable, functional association with these salamanders. The number of anti-Bd bacteria per individual varied among localities, but not among co-occurring salamander species, demonstrating that environment is more influential than host factors in structuring the anti-Bd bacterial community. These anti-Bd bacteria may serve a protective function for their salamander hosts.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 31 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 47 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 2%
Belgium 1 2%
Unknown 45 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 23%
Researcher 9 19%
Student > Bachelor 8 17%
Student > Master 6 13%
Unspecified 4 9%
Other 9 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 43%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 21%
Environmental Science 5 11%
Unspecified 5 11%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 6%
Other 4 9%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 17. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 April 2017.
All research outputs
#915,074
of 13,385,780 outputs
Outputs from Applied and Environmental Microbiology
#483
of 9,862 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#30,839
of 258,319 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Applied and Environmental Microbiology
#16
of 105 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,385,780 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 9,862 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.8. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 258,319 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 105 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.