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Experimental transmission of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep

Overview of attention for article published in Veterinary Research, July 2013
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Title
Experimental transmission of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep
Published in
Veterinary Research, July 2013
DOI 10.1186/1297-9716-44-66
Pubmed ID
Authors

Walsh SR, Linnerth-Petrik NM, Yu DL, Foster RA, Menzies PI, Diaz-Méndez A, Chalmers HJ, Wootton SK, Scott R Walsh, Nicolle M Linnerth-Petrik, Darrick L Yu, Robert A Foster, Paula I Menzies, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Heather J Chalmers, Sarah K Wootton

Abstract

Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious neoplasm of the secretory epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa of sheep and goats. It is associated with the betaretrovirus, enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), but a causative relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, 14-day-old lambs were experimentally infected via nebulization with cell-free tumor filtrates derived from naturally occurring cases of ENA. At 12 weeks post-infection (wpi), one of the five infected lambs developed clinical signs, including continuous nasal discharge and open mouth breathing, and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed the presence of a large bilateral tumor occupying the nasal cavity. At 45 wpi, when the study was terminated, none of the remaining infected sheep showed evidence of tumors either by computed tomography or post-mortem examination. ENTV-1 proviral DNA was detected in the nose, lung, spleen, liver and kidney of the animal with experimentally induced ENA, however there was no evidence of viral protein expression in tissues other than the nose. Density gradient analysis of virus particles purified from the experimentally induced nasal tumor revealed a peak reverse transcriptase (RT) activity at a buoyant density of 1.22 g/mL which was higher than the 1.18 g/mL density of peak RT activity of virus purified from naturally induced ENA. While the 1.22 g/mL fraction contained primarily immature unprocessed virus particles, mature virus particles with a similar morphology to naturally occurring ENA could be identified by electron microscopy. Full-length sequence analysis of the ENTV-1 genome from the experimentally induced tumor revealed very few nucleotide changes relative to the original inoculum with only one conservative amino acid change. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ENTV-1 is associated with transmissible ENA in sheep and that under experimental conditions, lethal tumors are capable of developing in as little as 12 wpi demonstrating the acutely oncogenic nature of this ovine betaretrovirus.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 13 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 8%
Unknown 12 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 23%
Other 2 15%
Student > Master 2 15%
Professor 1 8%
Researcher 1 8%
Other 1 8%
Unknown 3 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 3 23%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 23%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 8%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 3 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 July 2013.
All research outputs
#2,926,231
of 6,228,993 outputs
Outputs from Veterinary Research
#280
of 520 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#49,453
of 100,108 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Veterinary Research
#14
of 23 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 6,228,993 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 29th percentile – i.e., 29% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 520 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.8. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 100,108 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 36th percentile – i.e., 36% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 23 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 21st percentile – i.e., 21% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.