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Challenges for malaria elimination in Zanzibar: pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and poor performance of long-lasting insecticide nets

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, January 2013
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#20 of 3,208)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (97th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (95th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
6 news outlets
blogs
2 blogs
twitter
1 tweeter

Citations

dimensions_citation
35 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
100 Mendeley
citeulike
2 CiteULike
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Title
Challenges for malaria elimination in Zanzibar: pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and poor performance of long-lasting insecticide nets
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, January 2013
DOI 10.1186/1756-3305-6-82
Pubmed ID
Authors

Khamis A Haji, Bakari O Khatib, Stephen Smith, Abdullah S Ali, Gregor J Devine, Maureen Coetzee, Silas Majambere

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual house spraying (IRS) are the main interventions for the control of malaria vectors in Zanzibar. The aim of the present study was to assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors against the insecticides used for LLINs and IRS and to determine the durability and efficacy of LLINs on the island. METHODS: Mosquitoes were sampled from Pemba and Unguja islands in 2010--2011 for use in WHO susceptibility tests. One hundred and fifty LLINs were collected from households on Unguja, their physical state was recorded and then tested for efficacy as well as total insecticide content. RESULTS: Species identification revealed that over 90% of the Anopheles gambiae complex was An. arabiensis with a small number of An. gambiae s.s. and An. merus being present. Susceptibility tests showed that An. arabiensis on Pemba was resistant to the pyrethroids used for LLINs and IRS. Mosquitoes from Unguja Island, however, were fully susceptible to all pyrethroids tested. A physical examination of 150 LLINs showed that two thirds were damaged after only three years in use. All used nets had a significantly lower (p < 0.001) mean permethrin concentration of 791.6 mg/m2 compared with 944.2 mg/m2 for new ones. Their efficacy decreased significantly against both susceptible An. gambiae s.s. colony mosquitoes and wild-type mosquitoes from Pemba after just six washes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The sustainability of the gains achieved in malaria control in Zanzibar is seriously threatened by the resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and the short-lived efficacy of LLINs. This study has revealed that even in relatively well-resourced and logistically manageable places like Zanzibar, malaria elimination is going to be difficult to achieve with the current control measures.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 100 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 2 2%
Tanzania, United Republic of 1 1%
Unknown 97 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 23 23%
Researcher 23 23%
Student > Ph. D. Student 16 16%
Other 7 7%
Student > Bachelor 5 5%
Other 18 18%
Unknown 8 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 33 33%
Medicine and Dentistry 27 27%
Social Sciences 6 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 4%
Environmental Science 4 4%
Other 14 14%
Unknown 12 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 61. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 November 2017.
All research outputs
#241,900
of 12,451,686 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#20
of 3,208 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#3,702
of 159,254 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#1
of 22 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,451,686 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,208 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 159,254 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 22 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.