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Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, March 2017
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3 tweeters
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1 Facebook page

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3 Dimensions

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17 Mendeley
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Title
Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing
Published in
Virology Journal, March 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12985-017-0725-5
Pubmed ID
Authors

Olivia Wesula Lwande, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Kristoffer Ahlm, Jonas Näslund, Magnus Evander

Abstract

Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates. About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding). Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8-45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position. INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 17 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 17 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 4 24%
Student > Master 4 24%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 12%
Student > Bachelor 1 6%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 6%
Other 4 24%
Unknown 1 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 29%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 18%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 12%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 12%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 6%
Other 3 18%
Unknown 1 6%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 March 2017.
All research outputs
#4,494,643
of 9,269,265 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#886
of 1,811 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#127,066
of 260,601 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#29
of 56 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,269,265 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,811 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.4. This one is in the 46th percentile – i.e., 46% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 260,601 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 56 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.