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Estimating daily and diurnal variations of illicit drug use in Hong Kong: A pilot study of using wastewater analysis in an Asian metropolitan city

Overview of attention for article published in Forensic Science International, December 2013
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About this Attention Score

  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (57th percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (65th percentile)

Mentioned by

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6 tweeters

Citations

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41 Dimensions

Readers on

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51 Mendeley
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Title
Estimating daily and diurnal variations of illicit drug use in Hong Kong: A pilot study of using wastewater analysis in an Asian metropolitan city
Published in
Forensic Science International, December 2013
DOI 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.09.003
Pubmed ID
Authors

Foon Yin Lai, Raimondo Bruno, Ho Wing Leung, Phong K. Thai, Christoph Ort, Steve Carter, Kristie Thompson, Paul K.S. Lam, Jochen F. Mueller

Abstract

The measurement of illicit drug metabolites in raw wastewater is increasingly being adopted as an approach to objectively monitor population-level drug use, and is an effective complement to traditional epidemiological methods. As such, it has been widely applied in western countries. In this study, we utilised this approach to assess drug use patterns over nine days during April 2011 in Hong Kong. Raw wastewater samples were collected from the largest wastewater treatment plant serving a community of approximately 3.5 million people and analysed for excreted drug residues including cocaine, ketamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and key metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The overall drug use pattern determined by wastewater analysis was consistent with that have seen amongst people coming into contact with services in relation to substance use; among our target drugs, ketamine (estimated consumption: 1400-1600 mg/day/1000 people) was the predominant drug followed by methamphetamine (180-200 mg/day/1000 people), cocaine (160-180 mg/day/1000 people) and MDMA (not detected). The levels of these drugs were relatively steady throughout the monitoring period. Analysing samples at higher temporal resolution provided data on diurnal variations of drug residue loads. Elevated ratios of cocaine to benzoylecgonine were identified unexpectedly in three samples during the evening and night, providing evidence for potential dumping events of cocaine. This study provides the first application of wastewater analysis to quantitatively evaluate daily drug use in an Asian metropolitan community. Our data reinforces the benefit of wastewater monitoring to health and law enforcement authorities for strategic planning and evaluation of drug intervention strategies.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 6 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 51 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Spain 1 2%
Switzerland 1 2%
Malaysia 1 2%
United Kingdom 1 2%
Colombia 1 2%
Unknown 46 90%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 13 25%
Student > Master 12 24%
Researcher 8 16%
Unspecified 4 8%
Student > Postgraduate 4 8%
Other 10 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Chemistry 14 27%
Unspecified 10 20%
Environmental Science 6 12%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 8%
Engineering 3 6%
Other 14 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 December 2013.
All research outputs
#6,515,950
of 12,070,876 outputs
Outputs from Forensic Science International
#1,342
of 2,606 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#62,201
of 153,472 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Forensic Science International
#12
of 40 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,070,876 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,606 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 47th percentile – i.e., 47% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 153,472 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 57% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 40 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 65% of its contemporaries.