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Cytoprotective effect of palm kernel cake phenolics against aflatoxin B1-induced cell damage and its underlying mechanism of action

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, October 2015
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Title
Cytoprotective effect of palm kernel cake phenolics against aflatoxin B1-induced cell damage and its underlying mechanism of action
Published in
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12906-015-0921-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ehsan Oskoueian, Norhani Abdullah, Idrus Zulkifli, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Ehsan Karimi, Yong Meng Goh, Armin Oskoueian, Majid Shakeri

Abstract

Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of the palm oil industry is abundantly available in many tropical and subtropical countries. The product is known to contain high levels of phenolic compounds that may impede the deleterious effects of fungal mycotoxins. This study focused on the evaluation of PKC phenolics as a potential cytoprotective agent towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced cell damage. The phenolic compounds of PKC were obtained by solvent extraction and the product rich in phenolic compounds was labeled as phenolic-enriched fraction (PEF). This fraction was evaluated for its phenolic compounds composition. The antioxidant activity of PEF was determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays. The cytotoxicity assay and molecular biomarkers analyses were performed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of PEF towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced cell damage. The results showed that PEF contained gallic acid, pyrogallol, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, epicatechin, catechin and ferulic acid. The PEF exhibited free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, ß-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances inhibition. The PEF demonstrated cytoprotective effects in AFB1-treated chicken hepatocytes by reducing the cellular lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant enzymes production. The viability of AFB1-treated hepatocytes was improved by PEF through up-regulation of oxidative stress tolerance genes and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory and apoptosis associated genes. The present findings supported the proposition that the phenolic compounds present in PKC could be a potential cytoprotective agent towards AFB1 cytotoxicity.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 13 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 13 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Unspecified 4 31%
Researcher 4 31%
Student > Bachelor 3 23%
Professor > Associate Professor 1 8%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 8%
Other 0 0%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 4 31%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 15%
Chemistry 1 8%
Neuroscience 1 8%
Other 2 15%