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MGDG extracted from spinach enhances the cytotoxicity of radiation in pancreatic cancer cells

Overview of attention for article published in Radiation Oncology, November 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#22 of 1,480)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
3 tweeters
3 Facebook pages


6 Dimensions

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22 Mendeley
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MGDG extracted from spinach enhances the cytotoxicity of radiation in pancreatic cancer cells
Published in
Radiation Oncology, November 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13014-016-0729-0
Pubmed ID

Hiroaki Akasaka, Yoshiyuki Mizushina, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuo Ejima, Naritoshi Mukumoto, Tianyuan Wang, Sachiko Inubushi, Masao Nakayama, Yuki Wakahara, Ryohei Sasaki


In our previous study, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) purified from spinach was found to have cytotoxic effects in human cancer cell lines. This study further assessed whether MGDG can enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Glycoglycerolipids from spinach including MGDG were extracted from dried spinach. The cytotoxicity of MGDG were evaluated by the MTT assay using four human pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIAPaCa-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and PANC-1) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of radiation and MGDG alone or in combination in MIAPaCa-2 cells was analyzed with the colony forming and apoptosis assays, western blotting and cell cycle and DNA damage analyses (γ-H2AX foci staining and comet assay). The inhibitory effects on tumor growth were assessed in a mouse xenograft tumor model. MGDG showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in PANC-1, BxPC-3, MIAPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells at 72 h of 25.6 ± 2.5, 26.9 ± 1.3, 18.5 ± 1.7, and 22.7 ± 1.9 μM, respectively. The colony forming assay revealed fewer MIAPaCa-2, BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cell colonies upon treatment with both MGDG and radiation as compared to irradiation alone (P < 0.05). The combination of MGDG and radiation induced a higher proportion of apoptosis in MIAPaCa-2 cells; this effect was associated with increased mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and activation of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3. DNA damage was detected and DNA repair mechanisms were more frequently impaired in cells receiving the combination treatment as compared to either one alone. Tumor growth was inhibited to a greater degree in mice treated by intratumoral injection of MGDG combined with irradiation as compared to either one alone (P < 0.05). This is the first report demonstrating that MGDG enhances the cytotoxicity of radiation to induce apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that this therapeutic combination can be an effective strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 22 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 22 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 32%
Student > Bachelor 3 14%
Researcher 3 14%
Student > Master 2 9%
Librarian 1 5%
Other 1 5%
Unknown 5 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 7 32%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 23%
Chemistry 3 14%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 5%
Unknown 6 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 13. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 January 2020.
All research outputs
of 14,279,581 outputs
Outputs from Radiation Oncology
of 1,480 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 266,423 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Radiation Oncology
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,279,581 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 90th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,480 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 266,423 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them