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Isolation and characterization of the compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity of Combretum microphyllum (Combretaceae) leaf extracts

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, September 2017
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Title
Isolation and characterization of the compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity of Combretum microphyllum (Combretaceae) leaf extracts
Published in
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, September 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12906-017-1935-5
Pubmed ID
Authors

Tshepiso Jan Makhafola, Esameldin Elzein Elgorashi, Lyndy Joy McGaw, Maurice Ducret Awouafack, Luc Verschaeve, Jacobus Nicolaas Eloff

Abstract

Mutations play a major role in the pathogenesis and development of several chronic degenerative diseases including cancer. It follows, therefore that antimutagenic compound may inhibit the pathological process resulting from exposure to mutagens. Investigation of the antimutagenic potential of traditional medicinal plants and compounds isolated from plant extracts provides one of the tools that can be used to identify compounds with potential cancer chemopreventive properties. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterise the compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity of Combretum microphyllum. The methanol leaf extract of C. microphyllum was evaluated for antimutagenicity in the Ames/microsome assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. TA100 and TA102. Solvent-solvent fractionation was used to partition the extracts and by using bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds were isolated. The antimutagenic activity of the three compounds were determined in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102. The antioxidant activity of the three compounds were determined by the quantitative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical scavenging method. The cytotoxicity was determined in the MTT assay using human hepatocytes. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts for antimutagenic activity led to the isolation of three compounds; n-tetracosanol, eicosanoic acid and arjunolic acid. Arjunolic acid was the most active in all three tested strains with a antimutagenicity of 42 ± 9.6%, 36 ± 1.5% and 44 ± 0.18% in S. typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 respectively at the highest concentration (500 μg/ml) tested, followed by eicosanoic acid and n-tetracosanol. The antioxidant activity of the compounds were determined using the quantitative 2,2 diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical scavenging method. Only arjunolic acid had pronounced antioxidant activity (measured as DPPH-free scavenging activity) with an EC50 value of 0.51 μg/ml. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds were determined in the MTT assay using human hepatocytes. The compounds had low cytotoxicity at the highest concentration tested with LC50 values >200 μg/ml for n-tetracosanol and eicosanoic acid and 106.39 μg/ml for arjunolic acid. Based on findings from this study, compounds in leaf extracts of C. microphyllum protected against 4-NQO and MMC induced mutations as evident in the Ames test. The antimutagenic activity of arjunolic acid may, at least in part, be attributed to its antioxidant activity resulting in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species produced during mutagenesis.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 29 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 6 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 17%
Student > Master 4 14%
Student > Bachelor 3 10%
Lecturer > Senior Lecturer 2 7%
Other 4 14%
Unknown 5 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 17%
Chemistry 5 17%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 14%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 3%
Other 3 10%
Unknown 9 31%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 September 2017.
All research outputs
#10,397,735
of 11,727,438 outputs
Outputs from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
#1,990
of 2,425 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#222,858
of 263,888 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
#12
of 15 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,727,438 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,425 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.7. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 15 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.