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Targeted siRNA delivery reduces nitric oxide mediated cell death after spinal cord injury

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Nanobiotechnology, May 2017
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Title
Targeted siRNA delivery reduces nitric oxide mediated cell death after spinal cord injury
Published in
Journal of Nanobiotechnology, May 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12951-017-0272-7
Pubmed ID
Authors

Wen Gao, Jianming Li

Abstract

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) includes the primary insult as well as a sequela of biochemical and cellular cascades that amplifies the initial injury. This degenerative process, known as secondary injury, is often mediated by both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species released from damaged cells. Previous data suggests that dysregulated production of nitric oxide via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is detrimental to spinal cord recovery. M1 macrophages have been implicated to overexpress iNOS post-SCI. In this work, we propose to inhibit iNOS expression through small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexed chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) that primarily target M1 macrophages. siRNA conjugated chitosan complexes were fabricated with and without an antibody (Ab) targeting moiety and screened for efficiency to reduce iNOS expression in vitro. Best formulations were subsequently applied in vivo following acute SCI in a rodent model. iNOS expression as well as Bax and Bcl-2 biomarkers were used to assess cell apoptosis within the lesion at 24 h post-injury. Ab-siRNA conjugated chitosan NPs significantly reduced iNOS expression in vitro in M1 polarized macrophages. Results show high transfection efficiency with low cytotoxicity. Subsequent application of NPs in vivo after SCI demonstrated both a reduction in iNOS expression and cellular apoptosis. Proof of concept indicates that siRNA conjugated chitosan NPs can downregulate iNOS production and inhibit apoptosis following SCI. Our proposed gene silencing method putatively targets M1 macrophages as a means to attenuate secondary injury.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 25 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 25 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 40%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 16%
Student > Master 3 12%
Student > Bachelor 2 8%
Other 1 4%
Other 2 8%
Unknown 3 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 8 32%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 12%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 2 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 8%
Other 1 4%
Unknown 5 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 September 2017.
All research outputs
#9,411,120
of 11,774,002 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Nanobiotechnology
#269
of 356 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#177,822
of 241,047 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Nanobiotechnology
#8
of 8 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,774,002 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 356 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.0. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 8 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.