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Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies

Overview of attention for article published in PLoS ONE, August 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#6 of 143,708)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Citations

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Readers on

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467 Mendeley
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3 CiteULike
Title
Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies
Published in
PLoS ONE, August 2014
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0105225
Pubmed ID
Authors

Carles Grau, Romuald Ginhoux, Alejandro Riera, Thanh Lam Nguyen, Hubert Chauvat, Michel Berg, Julià L. Amengual, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Giulio Ruffini

Abstract

Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 1,467 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 467 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 14 3%
United Kingdom 8 2%
Germany 5 1%
Japan 5 1%
Netherlands 3 <1%
Spain 3 <1%
Colombia 2 <1%
France 2 <1%
Brazil 2 <1%
Other 11 2%
Unknown 412 88%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 112 24%
Researcher 87 19%
Student > Master 68 15%
Student > Bachelor 57 12%
Other 28 6%
Other 114 24%
Unknown 1 <1%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 74 16%
Psychology 73 16%
Neuroscience 62 13%
Engineering 50 11%
Computer Science 46 10%
Other 161 34%
Unknown 1 <1%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2615. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 September 2019.
All research outputs
#387
of 13,534,971 outputs
Outputs from PLoS ONE
#6
of 143,708 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#8
of 198,976 outputs
Outputs of similar age from PLoS ONE
#1
of 2,617 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,534,971 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 143,708 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 12.2. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 198,976 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2,617 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.