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On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans

Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Physiology, October 2017
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
22 news outlets
twitter
120 X users
facebook
11 Facebook pages
wikipedia
5 Wikipedia pages
googleplus
1 Google+ user
video
10 YouTube creators

Citations

dimensions_citation
252 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
377 Mendeley
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Title
On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans
Published in
Frontiers in Physiology, October 2017
DOI 10.3389/fphys.2017.00848
Pubmed ID
Authors

Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Rhys D. Evans, Peter Santer, Jack J. Miller, Olivia K. Faull, Snapper Magor-Elliott, Satoshi Hiyama, Matthew Stirling, Kieran Clarke

Abstract

Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB. Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB Cmax: KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001), which returned to baseline within 3-4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 participants. Food lowered blood D-βHB Cmax by 33% (Fed 2.2 mM, Fasted 3.3 mM, P < 0.001), but did not alter acetoacetate or breath acetone concentrations. All ketone drinks lowered blood glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations, and had similar effects on blood electrolytes, which remained normal. In the final study, participants were given KE over 9 h as three drinks (n = 12) or a continuous nasogastric infusion (n = 4) to maintain blood D-βHB concentrations greater than 1 mM. Both drinks and infusions gave identical D-βHB AUC of 1.3-1.4 moles.min. Conclusion: We conclude that exogenous ketone drinks are a practical, efficacious way to achieve ketosis.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 120 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 377 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 377 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 65 17%
Student > Master 64 17%
Researcher 55 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 35 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 11 3%
Other 42 11%
Unknown 105 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 51 14%
Medicine and Dentistry 51 14%
Sports and Recreations 37 10%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 23 6%
Nursing and Health Professions 22 6%
Other 69 18%
Unknown 124 33%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 265. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 February 2024.
All research outputs
#130,823
of 24,654,416 outputs
Outputs from Frontiers in Physiology
#65
of 15,158 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#2,837
of 334,106 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Physiology
#5
of 346 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 24,654,416 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 15,158 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 334,106 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 346 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.