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Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

Overview of attention for article published in Ecotoxicology, August 2014
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Mentioned by

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2 tweeters

Citations

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27 Dimensions

Readers on

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87 Mendeley
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Title
Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality
Published in
Ecotoxicology, August 2014
DOI 10.1007/s10646-014-1337-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

J. Christian Franson, Robin E. Russell

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 87 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 1%
Portugal 1 1%
Unknown 85 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 13 15%
Student > Master 11 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 9%
Professor > Associate Professor 7 8%
Student > Bachelor 7 8%
Other 20 23%
Unknown 21 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 23%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 18 21%
Environmental Science 9 10%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 9%
Unspecified 2 2%
Other 7 8%
Unknown 23 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 October 2014.
All research outputs
#7,684,080
of 12,341,768 outputs
Outputs from Ecotoxicology
#391
of 948 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#111,645
of 221,838 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Ecotoxicology
#22
of 82 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,341,768 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 948 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.7. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 56% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 221,838 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 82 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 68% of its contemporaries.