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Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

Overview of attention for article published in Ecotoxicology, August 2014
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Title
Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality
Published in
Ecotoxicology, August 2014
DOI 10.1007/s10646-014-1337-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

J. Christian Franson, Robin E. Russell

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 100 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 1%
Portugal 1 1%
Unknown 98 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 13 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 12 12%
Student > Master 10 10%
Professor > Associate Professor 9 9%
Student > Bachelor 7 7%
Other 20 20%
Unknown 29 29%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 21 21%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 20%
Environmental Science 9 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 8%
Engineering 2 2%
Other 8 8%
Unknown 32 32%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 October 2014.
All research outputs
#15,256,423
of 22,765,347 outputs
Outputs from Ecotoxicology
#625
of 1,472 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#136,121
of 236,953 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Ecotoxicology
#19
of 63 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,765,347 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,472 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.5. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 55% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 236,953 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 63 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 66% of its contemporaries.