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Efficacy of oral moxidectin against susceptible and resistant isolates of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, November 2017
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3 tweeters

Citations

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15 Dimensions

Readers on

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19 Mendeley
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Title
Efficacy of oral moxidectin against susceptible and resistant isolates of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, November 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2429-5
Pubmed ID
Authors

Tom L. McTier, Robert H. Six, Aleah Pullins, Sara Chapin, John W. McCall, Douglas Rugg, Steven J. Maeder, Debra J. Woods

Abstract

Monthly topical and sustained-release injectable formulations of moxidectin are currently marketed; however, an oral formulation, while approved at a dose of 3 μg/kg, is not currently marketed in the United States. Although resistance of heartworms to all macrocyclic lactone (ML) heartworm preventives (ivermectin, milbemycin, selamectin and moxidectin) has been demonstrated, to date no data have been reported on the effectiveness of oral moxidectin against recent isolates of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of nine studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of moxidectin against a range of older and recently sourced heartworm isolates. Dogs (groups of three to eight) were inoculated with 50 D. immitis infective larvae (L3) from nine different isolates (MP3, Michigan, JYD-34, ZoeMO-2012, ZoeKy-2013, ZoeLA-2013, GCFL-2014, AMAL-2014 and ZoeAL-2015) and treated 28-30 days later with single oral doses of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin. Additionally, one group of dogs that was inoculated with JYD-34 was treated monthly for 3 consecutive months beginning 30 days post inoculation. Dogs were held for approximately 4 months after the initial (or only) treatment and then necropsied for recovery of adult heartworms. A single dose of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin was 100% effective in preventing the development of five of nine heartworm isolates (MP3, Michigan, ZoeKy, GCFL and ZoeAL isolates), confirming their susceptibility to oral moxidectin at this dose. MP3 and Michigan are isolates sourced from the field more than 9 years ago, while ZoeKy, ZoeAL and GCFL were isolated from the field within the past 2 to 3 years. Against JYD-34, ZoeMO, ZoeLA and AMAL isolates, a single dose of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin was not completely effective, with efficacies of 19%, 82%, 54% and 62%, respectively, demonstrating resistance of these heartworm isolates to oral moxidectin at this dosage. Three consecutive monthly doses of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin were also incompletely effective against the JYD-34 isolate, with an efficacy of 44%. JYD-34 was originally isolated in 2010, while ZoeMO, ZoeLA and AMAL were isolated within the past 2 to 3 years. A single oral dose (3 μg/mg) of moxidectin was 100% effective in preventing the development of ML-susceptible heartworm isolates while being incompletely effective against ML-resistant isolates.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 19 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 19 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 21%
Other 3 16%
Student > Master 3 16%
Student > Bachelor 1 5%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 5%
Other 2 11%
Unknown 5 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 5 26%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 21%
Business, Management and Accounting 1 5%
Arts and Humanities 1 5%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 5%
Other 1 5%
Unknown 6 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 February 2018.
All research outputs
#8,644,699
of 13,786,654 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#2,102
of 3,680 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#183,241
of 315,242 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#358
of 584 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,786,654 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,680 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 315,242 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 584 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.