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Early Mesozoic Coexistence of Amniotes and Hepadnaviridae

Overview of attention for article published in PLoS Genetics, December 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (94th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (87th percentile)

Mentioned by

blogs
1 blog
twitter
18 tweeters
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page

Citations

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41 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
51 Mendeley
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Title
Early Mesozoic Coexistence of Amniotes and Hepadnaviridae
Published in
PLoS Genetics, December 2014
DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004559
Pubmed ID
Authors

Alexander Suh, Claudia C. Weber, Christian Kehlmaier, Edward L. Braun, Richard E. Green, Uwe Fritz, David A. Ray, Hans Ellegren

Abstract

Hepadnaviridae are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect some species of birds and mammals. This includes humans, where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) are prevalent pathogens in considerable parts of the global population. Recently, endogenized sequences of HBVs (eHBVs) have been discovered in bird genomes where they constitute direct evidence for the coexistence of these viruses and their hosts from the late Mesozoic until present. Nevertheless, virtually nothing is known about the ancient host range of this virus family in other animals. Here we report the first eHBVs from crocodilian, snake, and turtle genomes, including a turtle eHBV that endogenized >207 million years ago. This genomic "fossil" is >125 million years older than the oldest avian eHBV and provides the first direct evidence that Hepadnaviridae already existed during the Early Mesozoic. This implies that the Mesozoic fossil record of HBV infection spans three of the five major groups of land vertebrates, namely birds, crocodilians, and turtles. We show that the deep phylogenetic relationships of HBVs are largely congruent with the deep phylogeny of their amniote hosts, which suggests an ancient amniote-HBV coexistence and codivergence, at least since the Early Mesozoic. Notably, the organization of overlapping genes as well as the structure of elements involved in viral replication has remained highly conserved among HBVs along that time span, except for the presence of the X gene. We provide multiple lines of evidence that the tumor-promoting X protein of mammalian HBVs lacks a homolog in all other hepadnaviruses and propose a novel scenario for the emergence of X via segmental duplication and overprinting of pre-existing reading frames in the ancestor of mammalian HBVs. Our study reveals an unforeseen host range of prehistoric HBVs and provides novel insights into the genome evolution of hepadnaviruses throughout their long-lasting association with amniote hosts.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 18 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 51 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
India 1 2%
Sweden 1 2%
Argentina 1 2%
South Africa 1 2%
Unknown 47 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 12 24%
Researcher 9 18%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 10%
Student > Bachelor 5 10%
Student > Master 5 10%
Other 11 22%
Unknown 4 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 25 49%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 12 24%
Environmental Science 4 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 4%
Social Sciences 1 2%
Other 1 2%
Unknown 6 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 24. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 March 2018.
All research outputs
#719,831
of 14,049,946 outputs
Outputs from PLoS Genetics
#873
of 6,821 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#16,595
of 299,683 outputs
Outputs of similar age from PLoS Genetics
#23
of 189 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,049,946 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 6,821 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 14.8. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 299,683 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 94% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 189 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its contemporaries.