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Genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from North America revealed widespread and high prevalence of the fourth clonal type

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal for Parasitology, September 2011
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  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (71st percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (78th percentile)

Mentioned by

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1 Wikipedia page

Citations

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138 Dimensions

Readers on

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251 Mendeley
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1 Connotea
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Title
Genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from North America revealed widespread and high prevalence of the fourth clonal type
Published in
International Journal for Parasitology, September 2011
DOI 10.1016/j.ijpara.2011.06.005
Pubmed ID
Authors

J.P. Dubey, G.V. Velmurugan, C. Rajendran, M.J. Yabsley, N.J. Thomas, K.B. Beckmen, D. Sinnett, D. Ruid, J. Hart, P.A. Fair, W.E. McFee, V. Shearn-Bochsler, O.C.H. Kwok, L.R. Ferreira, S. Choudhary, E.B. Faria, H. Zhou, T.A. Felix, C. Su

Abstract

Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study wild animals, from the USA were examined for T. gondii infection. Tissues of naturally exposed animals were bioassayed in mice for isolation of viable parasites. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 31 animals including, to our knowledge for the first time, from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), five gray wolves (Canis lupus), a woodrat (Neotoma micropus), and five Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). Additionally, 66 T. gondii isolates obtained previously, but not genetically characterised, were revived in mice. Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from these 97 samples (31+66) was characterised using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). A total of 95 isolates were successfully genotyped. In addition to clonal Types II, and III, 12 different genotypes were found. These genotype data were combined with 74 T. gondii isolates previously characterised from wildlife from North America and a composite data set of 169 isolates comprised 22 genotypes, including clonal Types II, III and 20 atypical genotypes. Phylogenetic network analysis showed limited diversity with dominance of a recently designated fourth clonal type (Type 12) in North America, followed by the Type II and III lineages. These three major lineages together accounted for 85% of strains in North America. The Type 12 lineage includes previously identified Type A and X strains from sea otters. This study revealed that the Type 12 lineage accounts for 46.7% (79/169) of isolates and is dominant in wildlife of North America. No clonal Type I strain was identified among these wildlife isolates. These results suggest that T. gondii strains in wildlife from North America have limited diversity, with the occurrence of only a few major clonal types.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 251 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 1%
Brazil 3 1%
United Kingdom 2 <1%
Colombia 2 <1%
India 1 <1%
Norway 1 <1%
Australia 1 <1%
Turkey 1 <1%
Chile 1 <1%
Other 9 4%
Unknown 227 90%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 51 20%
Researcher 46 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 44 18%
Student > Bachelor 24 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 17 7%
Other 48 19%
Unknown 21 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 116 46%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 40 16%
Environmental Science 26 10%
Medicine and Dentistry 17 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 4%
Other 14 6%
Unknown 28 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 April 2014.
All research outputs
#832,022
of 3,678,504 outputs
Outputs from International Journal for Parasitology
#111
of 533 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#27,832
of 100,692 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal for Parasitology
#4
of 19 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 3,678,504 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 63rd percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 533 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.8. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 100,692 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 71% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 19 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 78% of its contemporaries.