The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant status of plasma vitamin E and plasma and intracellular coenzyme Q10 in children with type 1 diabetes.
This case-control study was conducted on 72 children with type 1 diabetes and compared to 48 healthy children, who were age, sex, and ethnicity-matched. The diabetic children were divided according to their glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c %) into two groups: poor and good glycemic control groups. All children underwent full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory measurement of complete blood count, A1c %, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and vitamin E levels and coenzyme Q10 levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and platelets.
Children with poor glycemic control showed significantly higher plasma vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, waist circumference/height ratio, cholesterol levels, and lower high-density lipoproteins and platelet coenzyme Q10 redox status in comparison to those with good glycemic control and the control group (p<0.05). Plasma coenzyme Q10 showed a positive correlation with the duration of type 1 diabetes, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamin E, and A1c %, and negative correlation with the age of the diabetic group (p<0.05). The platelet redox status showed a negative correlation with the A1c % levels (r=-0.31; p=0.022) and the duration of type 1 diabetes (r=-0.35, p=0.012).
Patients with type 1 diabetes, especially poorly controlled, had elevation of plasma vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 levels and decreased platelet redox status of coenzyme Q10, which may be an indicator of increased oxidative stress.