Maternal Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection can lead to spontaneous abortion, fetal malformation, and numerous sequelae in the newborn, including visual and hearing impairment. T. gondii serology was determined in pregnant women and their newborns who were referred to Climério de Oliveira Maternity, Federal University of Bahia, and the possible associations with the risk factors for maternal infection were investigated. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014 and included 712 pregnant women, aged 15 to 49 years, and 235 newborns. Seroprevalence was determined by the detection of T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M (IgM) and IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, mothers completed a questionnaire that focused on socioeconomic aspects, and survey data were tabulated using the SPSS statistical software program (version 21.0 for Windows). The seroprevalence rate for specific IgG antibodies was 51% (362) among mothers and 93% (219) among neonates. All the mothers and their newborns were negative for specific-IgM antibodies. Higher age group and lower maternal education were the only risk factors statistically associated with the presence of specific IgG. In summary, high levels of specific IgG antibodies were observed in pregnant women. The knowledge of risk factors for toxoplasmosis can help in the orientation of newly pregnant women.