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Activated microglia/macrophage whey acidic protein (AMWAP) inhibits NFκB signaling and induces a neuroprotective phenotype in microglia

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, April 2015
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (83rd percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
1 tweeter


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59 Mendeley
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Activated microglia/macrophage whey acidic protein (AMWAP) inhibits NFκB signaling and induces a neuroprotective phenotype in microglia
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, April 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12974-015-0296-6
Pubmed ID

Alexander Aslanidis, Marcus Karlstetter, Rebecca Scholz, Sascha Fauser, Harald Neumann, Cora Fried, Markus Pietsch, Thomas Langmann


Microglia reactivity is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously identified activated microglia/macrophage whey acidic protein (AMWAP) as a counter-regulator of pro-inflammatory response. Here, we studied its mechanisms of action with a focus on toll-like receptor (TLR) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signaling. Recombinant AMWAP was produced in Escherichia coli and HEK293 EBNA cells and purified by affinity chromatography. AMWAP uptake was identified by fluorescent labeling, and pro-inflammatory microglia markers were measured by qRT-PCR after stimulation with TLR ligands. NFκB pathway proteins were assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and immunoprecipitation. A 20S proteasome activity assay was used to investigate the anti-peptidase activity of AMWAP. Microglial neurotoxicity was estimated by nitrite measurement and quantification of caspase 3/7 levels in 661W photoreceptors cultured in the presence of microglia-conditioned medium. Microglial proliferation was investigated using flow cytometry, and their phagocytosis was monitored by the uptake of 661W photoreceptor debris. AMWAP was secreted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and recombinant AMWAP reduced gene transcription of IL6, iNOS, CCL2, CASP11, and TNFα in BV-2 microglia treated with LPS as TLR4 ligand. This effect was replicated with murine embryonic stem cell-derived microglia (ESdM) and primary brain microglia. AMWAP also diminished pro-inflammatory markers in microglia activated with the TLR2 ligand zymosan but had no effects on IL6, iNOS, and CCL2 transcription in cells treated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as TLR9 ligand. Microglial uptake of AMWAP effectively inhibited TLR4-dependent NFκB activation by preventing IRAK-1 and IκBα proteolysis. No inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation or ubiquitination and no influence on overall 20S proteasome activity were observed. Functionally, both microglial nitric oxide (NO) secretion and 661W photoreceptor apoptosis were significantly reduced after AMWAP treatment. AMWAP promoted the filopodia formation of microglia and increased the phagocytic uptake of apoptotic 661W photoreceptor cells. AMWAP is secreted from reactive microglia and acts in a paracrine fashion to counter-balance TLR2/TLR4-induced reactivity through NFκB inhibition. AMWAP also induces a neuroprotective microglial phenotype with reduced neurotoxicity and increased phagocytosis. We therefore hypothesize that anti-inflammatory whey acidic proteins could have a therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases of the brain and the retina.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 59 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 59 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 25%
Student > Master 14 24%
Researcher 10 17%
Student > Bachelor 8 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 3%
Other 5 8%
Unknown 5 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 13 22%
Neuroscience 13 22%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 17%
Medicine and Dentistry 9 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 5%
Other 4 7%
Unknown 7 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 10. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 May 2015.
All research outputs
of 17,356,510 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
of 2,139 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 235,385 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
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Altmetric has tracked 17,356,510 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 86th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,139 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.8. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 74% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 235,385 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them