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Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Oral Health, May 2015
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (79th percentile)

Mentioned by

10 tweeters


15 Dimensions

Readers on

73 Mendeley
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Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process
Published in
BMC Oral Health, May 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12903-015-0040-8
Pubmed ID

Enyi Etiaba, Nkoli Uguru, Bassey Ebenso, Giuliano Russo, Nkoli Ezumah, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Obinna Onwujekwe


In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio-political contexts in which actors develop policy can facilitate and/or constrain actors' roles and interests as well as policy process. These must be taken into consideration at stages of policy development in order to produce policies that will strengthen the health system, especially in low and middle-income countries, where policy processes and influences can be often less than transparent.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 73 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 1%
Germany 1 1%
Unknown 71 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 20 27%
Researcher 15 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 11%
Student > Postgraduate 7 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 8%
Other 13 18%
Unknown 4 5%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 34 47%
Social Sciences 17 23%
Nursing and Health Professions 13 18%
Business, Management and Accounting 2 3%
Sports and Recreations 1 1%
Other 1 1%
Unknown 5 7%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 7. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 January 2019.
All research outputs
of 15,856,866 outputs
Outputs from BMC Oral Health
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Outputs of similar age
of 232,455 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Oral Health
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Altmetric has tracked 15,856,866 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 81st percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 877 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.6. This one has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 232,455 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 79% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them