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Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

Overview of attention for article published in Scientific Reports, August 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (97th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
9 news outlets
blogs
2 blogs
twitter
42 tweeters
facebook
2 Facebook pages
googleplus
4 Google+ users

Readers on

mendeley
28 Mendeley
citeulike
1 CiteULike
Title
Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue
Published in
Scientific Reports, August 2015
DOI 10.1038/srep12915
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ines Schreiver, Christoph Hutzler, Peter Laux, Hans-Peter Berlien, Andreas Luch

Abstract

Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 42 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 28 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Spain 1 4%
Germany 1 4%
Unknown 26 93%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 6 21%
Other 5 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 18%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 14%
Professor > Associate Professor 2 7%
Other 4 14%
Unknown 2 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 8 29%
Chemistry 3 11%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 11%
Environmental Science 2 7%
Chemical Engineering 2 7%
Other 6 21%
Unknown 4 14%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 115. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 February 2019.
All research outputs
#175,366
of 15,569,128 outputs
Outputs from Scientific Reports
#2,101
of 80,917 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#3,063
of 236,911 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Scientific Reports
#72
of 2,810 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,569,128 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 80,917 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 16.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 236,911 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2,810 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.