↓ Skip to main content

Continuation versus discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy for bleeding and ischaemic events in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, July 2018
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (93rd percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (79th percentile)

Mentioned by

twitter
59 tweeters
facebook
1 Facebook page

Citations

dimensions_citation
11 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
61 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Title
Continuation versus discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy for bleeding and ischaemic events in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, July 2018
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd012584.pub2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith

Abstract

Antiplatelet agents are recommended for people with myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndromes, transient ischaemic attack or stroke, and for those in whom coronary stents have been inserted. People who take antiplatelet agents are at increased risk of adverse events when undergoing non-cardiac surgery because of these indications. However, taking antiplatelet therapy also introduces risk to the person undergoing surgery because the likelihood of bleeding is increased. Discontinuing antiplatelet therapy before surgery might reduce this risk but subsequently it might make thrombotic problems, such as myocardial infarction, more likely. To compare the effects of continuation versus discontinuation for at least five days of antiplatelet therapy on the occurrence of bleeding and ischaemic events in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery under general, spinal or regional anaesthesia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2018), and Embase (1974 to January 2018). We searched clinical trials registers for ongoing studies, and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. We included randomized controlled trials of adults who were taking single or dual antiplatelet therapy, for at least two weeks, and were scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery. Included participants had at least one cardiac risk factor. We planned to include quasi-randomized studies.We excluded people scheduled for minor surgeries under local anaesthetic or sedation in which bleeding that required transfusion or additional surgery was unlikely. We included studies which compared perioperative continuation of antiplatelet therapy versus discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy or versus substitution of antiplatelet therapy with a placebo for at least five days before surgery. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and synthesized findings. Our primary outcomes were: all-cause mortality at longest follow-up (up to six months); all-cause mortality (up to 30 days). Secondary outcomes included: blood loss requiring transfusion of blood products; blood loss requiring further surgical intervention; risk of ischaemic events. We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome MAIN RESULTS: We included five RCTs with 666 randomized adults. We identified three ongoing studies.All study participants were scheduled for elective general surgery (including abdominal, urological, orthopaedic and gynaecological surgery) under general, spinal or regional anaesthesia. Studies compared continuation of single or dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin or clopidogrel) with discontinuation of therapy for at least five days before surgery.Three studies reported adequate methods of randomization, and two reported methods to conceal allocation. Three studies were placebo-controlled trials and were at low risk of performance bias, and three studies reported adequate methods to blind outcome assessors to group allocation. Attrition was limited in four studies and two studies had reported prospective registration with clinical trial registers and were at low risk of selective outcome reporting bias.We reported mortality at two time points: the longest follow-up reported by study authors up to six months, and time point reported by study authors up to 30 days. Five studies reported mortality up to six months (of which four studies had a longest follow-up at 30 days, and one study at 90 days) and we found that either continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy may make little or no difference to mortality up to six months (risk ratio (RR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 4.27; 659 participants; low-certainty evidence); the absolute effect is three more deaths per 1000 with continuation of antiplatelets (ranging from eight fewer to 40 more). Combining the four studies with a longest follow-up at 30 days alone showed the same effect estimate, and we found that either continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy may make little or no difference to mortality at 30 days after surgery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.34 to 4.27; 616 participants; low-certainty evidence); the absolute effect is three more deaths per 1000 with continuation of antiplatelets (ranging from nine fewer to 42 more).We found that either continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy probably makes little or no difference in incidences of blood loss requiring transfusion (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.26; 368 participants; absolute effect of 42 more participants per 1000 requiring transfusion in the continuation group, ranging from 19 fewer to 119 more; four studies; moderate-certainty evidence); and may make little or no difference in incidences of blood loss requiring additional surgery (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 7.58; 368 participants; absolute effect of six more participants per 1000 requiring additional surgery in the continuation group, ranging from seven fewer to 71 more; four studies; low-certainty evidence). We found that either continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy may make little or no difference to incidences of ischaemic events (to include peripheral ischaemia, cerebral infarction, and myocardial infarction) within 30 days of surgery (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.77; 616 participants; absolute effect of 17 fewer participants per 1000 with an ischaemic event in the continuation group, ranging from 39 fewer to 40 more; four studies; low-certainty evidence).We used the GRADE approach to downgrade evidence for all outcomes owing to limited evidence from few studies. We noted a wide confidence in effect estimates for mortality at the end of follow-up and at 30 days, and for blood loss requiring transfusion which suggested imprecision. We noted visual differences in study results for ischaemic events which suggested inconsistency. We found low-certainty evidence that either continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy before non-cardiac surgery may make little or no difference to mortality, bleeding requiring surgical intervention, or ischaemic events. We found moderate-certainty evidence that either continuation or discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy before non-cardiac surgery probably makes little or no difference to bleeding requiring transfusion. Evidence was limited to few studies with few participants, and with few events. The three ongoing studies may alter the conclusions of the review once published and assessed.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 59 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 61 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 61 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 12 20%
Unspecified 11 18%
Researcher 10 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 13%
Other 5 8%
Other 15 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 28 46%
Unspecified 16 26%
Nursing and Health Professions 10 16%
Neuroscience 2 3%
Psychology 2 3%
Other 3 5%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 36. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 January 2019.
All research outputs
#483,565
of 13,707,844 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#1,453
of 10,719 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#18,377
of 267,033 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#37
of 182 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,707,844 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 96th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,719 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 21.2. This one has done well, scoring higher than 86% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 267,033 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 182 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 79% of its contemporaries.