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Direct evidence of surface exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, August 2018
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

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Title
Direct evidence of surface exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, August 2018
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1802345115
Pubmed ID
Authors

Shuai Li, Paul G. Lucey, Ralph E. Milliken, Paul O. Hayne, Elizabeth Fisher, Jean-Pierre Williams, Dana M. Hurley, Richard C. Elphic

Abstract

Water ice may be allowed to accumulate in permanently shaded regions on airless bodies in the inner solar system such as Mercury, the Moon, and Ceres [Watson K, et al. (1961) J Geophys Res 66:3033-3045]. Unlike Mercury and Ceres, direct evidence for water ice exposed at the lunar surface has remained elusive. We utilize indirect lighting in regions of permanent shadow to report the detection of diagnostic near-infrared absorption features of water ice in reflectance spectra acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [M (3)] instrument. Several thousand M (3) pixels (∼280 × 280 m) with signatures of water ice at the optical surface (depth of less than a few millimeters) are identified within 20° latitude of both poles, including locations where independent measurements have suggested that water ice may be present. Most ice locations detected in M (3) data also exhibit lunar orbiter laser altimeter reflectance values and Lyman Alpha Mapping Project instrument UV ratio values consistent with the presence of water ice and also exhibit annual maximum temperatures below 110 K. However, only ∼3.5% of cold traps exhibit ice exposures. Spectral modeling shows that some ice-bearing pixels may contain ∼30 wt % ice that is intimately mixed with dry regolith. The patchy distribution and low abundance of lunar surface-exposed water ice might be associated with the true polar wander and impact gardening. The observation of spectral features of H2O confirms that water ice is trapped and accumulates in permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, and in some locations, it is exposed at the modern optical surface.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 163 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 163 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 38 23%
Student > Master 29 18%
Researcher 26 16%
Student > Bachelor 12 7%
Professor > Associate Professor 10 6%
Other 22 13%
Unknown 26 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Earth and Planetary Sciences 50 31%
Engineering 32 20%
Physics and Astronomy 13 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 4%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 3%
Other 26 16%
Unknown 31 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1681. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 October 2020.
All research outputs
#2,551
of 16,287,211 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#100
of 87,083 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#80
of 280,454 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#5
of 906 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,287,211 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 87,083 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 29.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 280,454 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 906 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.