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Type VI secretion systems of human gut Bacteroidales segregate into three genetic architectures, two of which are contained on mobile genetic elements

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Genomics, January 2016
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Title
Type VI secretion systems of human gut Bacteroidales segregate into three genetic architectures, two of which are contained on mobile genetic elements
Published in
BMC Genomics, January 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12864-016-2377-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Michael J. Coyne, Kevin G. Roelofs, Laurie E. Comstock

Abstract

Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are contact-dependent antagonistic systems employed by Gram negative bacteria to intoxicate other bacteria or eukaryotic cells. T6SSs were recently discovered in a few Bacteroidetes strains, thereby extending the presence of these systems beyond Proteobacteria. The present study was designed to analyze in a global nature the diversity, abundance, and properties of T6SSs in the Bacteroidales, the most predominant Gram negative bacterial order of the human gut. By performing extensive bioinformatics analyses and creating hidden Markov models for Bacteroidales Tss proteins, we identified 130 T6SS loci in 205 human gut Bacteroidales genomes. Of the 13 core T6SS proteins of Proteobacteria, human gut Bacteroidales T6SS loci encode orthologs of nine, and an additional five other core proteins not present in Proteobacterial T6SSs. The Bacteroidales T6SS loci segregate into three distinct genetic architectures with extensive DNA identity between loci of a given genetic architecture. We found that divergent DNA regions of a genetic architecture encode numerous types of effector and immunity proteins and likely include new classes of these proteins. TheT6SS loci of genetic architecture 1 are contained on highly similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), as are the T6SS loci of genetic architecture 2, whereas the T6SS loci of genetic architecture 3 are not and are confined to Bacteroides fragilis. Using collections of co-resident Bacteroidales strains from human subjects, we provide evidence for the transfer of genetic architecture 1 T6SS loci among co-resident Bacteroidales species in the human gut. However, we also found that established ecosystems can harbor strains with distinct T6SS of all genetic architectures. This is the first study to comprehensively analyze of the presence and diversity of T6SS loci within an order of bacteria and to analyze T6SSs of bacteria from a natural community. These studies demonstrate that more than half of our gut Bacteroidales, equivalent to about ¼ of the bacteria of this ecosystem, encode T6SSs. The data reveal several novel properties of these systems and suggest that antagonism between or distributed defense among these abundant intestinal bacteria may be common in established human gut communities.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 74 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 1%
Brazil 1 1%
Unknown 72 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 24 32%
Student > Master 11 15%
Unspecified 10 14%
Researcher 9 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 8%
Other 14 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 34 46%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 15 20%
Unspecified 11 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 9 12%
Chemistry 2 3%
Other 3 4%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 December 2016.
All research outputs
#3,857,284
of 8,763,848 outputs
Outputs from BMC Genomics
#2,711
of 6,109 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#124,807
of 326,354 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Genomics
#142
of 318 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,763,848 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 54th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 6,109 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.2. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 52% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 326,354 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 59% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 318 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.