↓ Skip to main content

Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

Overview of attention for article published in Environmental Health, April 2003
Altmetric Badge


12 Dimensions

Readers on

13 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study
Published in
Environmental Health, April 2003
DOI 10.1186/1476-069x-2-5
Pubmed ID

Iman Nuwayhid, Mona Nabulsi, Samar Muwakkit, Sarah Kouzi, George Salem, Mohamed Mikati, Majd Ariss


Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L) among 1-3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997-98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 microg/L. Mean B-Pb was 66.0 microg/L (median 60.0; range 10-160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb >or= 100 microg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 13 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 13 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 2 15%
Researcher 1 8%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 8%
Student > Bachelor 1 8%
Unknown 8 62%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 2 15%
Social Sciences 1 8%
Environmental Science 1 8%
Unknown 9 69%