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Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge

Overview of attention for article published in Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, November 2015
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Title
Environmental factors related to the production of a complex set of spicules in a tropical freshwater sponge
Published in
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, November 2015
DOI 10.1590/0001-3765201520140461
Pubmed ID
Authors

MARCELA C. MATTEUZZO, CECÍLIA VOLKMER-RIBEIRO, ANGÉLICA F.D.C. VARAJÃO, CÉSAR A.C. VARAJÃO, ANNE ALEXANDRE, DEMETRIO L. GUADAGNIN, ARIANA C.S. ALMEIDA

Abstract

Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance of the alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factors related to this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 9 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 9 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 2 22%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 11%
Professor 1 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 11%
Student > Master 1 11%
Other 1 11%
Unknown 2 22%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 44%
Environmental Science 1 11%
Computer Science 1 11%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 1 11%
Unknown 2 22%