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Antifilarial activity of diterpenoids from Taxodium distichum

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, May 2016
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Title
Antifilarial activity of diterpenoids from Taxodium distichum
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, May 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13071-016-1592-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Vikas Kushwaha, Kirti Saxena, Richa Verma, Shiv K. Verma, Deepali Katoch, Neeraj Kumar, Brij Lal, P. Kalpana Murthy, Bikram Singh

Abstract

Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, is a debilitating disease with an adverse social and economic impact. The infection remains unabated in spite of treatment with existing antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and ivermectin which are chiefly microfilaricides. There is therefore, need for macrofilaricides, embryostatic agents and better microfilaricides. In the present study we explored the antifilarial potential of crude extract and its molecular fractions of the plant Taxodium distichum using in vitro assay systems and rodent models of B. malayi infection. Ethanolic extract (A001) of aerial parts of T. distichum was solvent fractionated and sub-fractionated. Four molecules, 3-Acetoxylabda-8(20), 13-diene-15-oic acid (K001), Beta-sitosterol (K002), labda-8(20),13-diene-15-oic acid (K003) and Metasequoic acid A (K004) were isolated from the fractions and their structure determined by spectroscopic analysis. The extract, subfractions and molecules were evaluated for antifilarial activity against B. malayi by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and motility assays in vitro and in two animal models, Meriones unguiculatus and Mastomys coucha, harbouring B. malayi infection. A001 was effective in killing microfilariae (mf) and adult worms in vitro. The diterpenoid K003 produced 100 % reduction in motility of both mf and adult worms and > 80 % inhibition in MTT reduction potential of adult female worms. In B. malayi-M. unguiculatus model, A001 killed all the adult worms in > 80 % of infected animals. K003 was embryostatic (> 95 %) in this model. In the B. malayi-M. coucha model, K003 killed ~54 % of adult worms (macrofilaricidal activity) and rendered > 36 % female worms sterile; it also stopped any further rise in microfilaraemia after day 42 post-initiation of treatment. Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of the plant T. distichum possesses potent antifilarial activity and the active principle was localised to K003 which showed significant macrofilaricidal activity and late suppression of peripheral microfilaraemia and some embryostatic activity. These findings indicate that labdane diterpenoid molecule(s) may provide valuable leads for design and development of new macrofilaricidal agent(s). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antifilarial efficacy of products from the plant T. distichum.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 23 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 23 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 5 22%
Other 3 13%
Student > Postgraduate 3 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 9%
Researcher 2 9%
Other 4 17%
Unknown 4 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 5 22%
Chemistry 4 17%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 9%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 9%
Other 3 13%
Unknown 4 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 02 June 2016.
All research outputs
#6,796,943
of 7,847,043 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#1,869
of 2,180 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#224,441
of 269,354 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#165
of 177 outputs
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So far Altmetric has tracked 2,180 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.6. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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