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Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, January 2008
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#6 of 325)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
8 news outlets
twitter
45 tweeters
patent
3 patents
facebook
5 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page
video
3 video uploaders

Citations

dimensions_citation
101 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
202 Mendeley
citeulike
1 CiteULike
connotea
1 Connotea
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Title
Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity
Published in
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, January 2008
DOI 10.1186/1745-6673-3-26
Pubmed ID
Authors

Dirk W Lachenmeier

Abstract

Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking.The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion.In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations). Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) deficiency.After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants) relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur.As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 45 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 202 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 <1%
Indonesia 1 <1%
Pakistan 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Japan 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Unknown 194 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 38 19%
Student > Master 33 16%
Researcher 24 12%
Student > Ph. D. Student 23 11%
Other 12 6%
Other 32 16%
Unknown 40 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 43 21%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 31 15%
Chemistry 20 10%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 17 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 5%
Other 32 16%
Unknown 49 24%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 115. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 November 2020.
All research outputs
#191,962
of 16,298,542 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
#6
of 325 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#1,075
of 133,664 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,298,542 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 325 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 133,664 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them