↓ Skip to main content

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

Overview of attention for article published in Nature Medicine, April 2013
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Citations

dimensions_citation
2710 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
2514 Mendeley
citeulike
6 CiteULike
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Title
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis
Published in
Nature Medicine, April 2013
DOI 10.1038/nm.3145
Pubmed ID
Authors

Robert A Koeth, Zeneng Wang, Bruce S Levison, Jennifer A Buffa, Elin Org, Brendan T Sheehy, Earl B Britt, Xiaoming Fu, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Jonathan D Smith, Joseph A DiDonato, Jun Chen, Hongzhe Li, Gary D Wu, James D Lewis, Manya Warrier, J Mark Brown, Ronald M Krauss, W H Wilson Tang, Frederic D Bushman, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen

Abstract

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed. In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 432 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 2,514 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 38 2%
Germany 7 <1%
United Kingdom 5 <1%
Japan 5 <1%
Canada 5 <1%
Australia 4 <1%
Italy 4 <1%
Spain 3 <1%
Netherlands 3 <1%
Other 21 <1%
Unknown 2419 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 461 18%
Researcher 442 18%
Student > Bachelor 315 13%
Student > Master 298 12%
Other 155 6%
Other 486 19%
Unknown 357 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 583 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 503 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 381 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 117 5%
Chemistry 80 3%
Other 395 16%
Unknown 455 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1074. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 August 2022.
All research outputs
#10,468
of 21,750,593 outputs
Outputs from Nature Medicine
#93
of 8,237 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#46
of 175,741 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Nature Medicine
#1
of 120 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,750,593 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 8,237 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 91.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 175,741 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 120 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.