Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

Overview of attention for article published in Nature Medicine, April 2013
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#5 of 4,245)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

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mendeley
980 Mendeley
citeulike
6 CiteULike
Title
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis
Published in
Nature Medicine, April 2013
DOI 10.1038/nm.3145
Pubmed ID
Authors

Robert A Koeth, Zeneng Wang, Bruce S Levison, Jennifer A Buffa, Elin Org, Brendan T Sheehy, Earl B Britt, Xiaoming Fu, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Jonathan D Smith, Joseph A DiDonato, Jun Chen, Hongzhe Li, Gary D Wu, James D Lewis, Manya Warrier, J Mark Brown, Ronald M Krauss, W H Wilson Tang, Frederic D Bushman, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, Sheehy BT, Britt EB, Fu X, Wu Y, Li L, Smith JD, Didonato JA, Chen J, Li H, Wu GD, Lewis JD, Warrier M, Brown JM, Krauss RM, Tang WH, Bushman FD, Lusis AJ, Hazen SL, Robert A. Koeth, Bruce S. Levison, Jennifer A. Buffa, Brendan T. Sheehy, Earl B. Britt, Jonathan D. Smith, Joseph A. DiDonato, Gary D. Wu, James D. Lewis, J. Mark Brown, Ronald M. Krauss, W. H. Wilson Tang, Frederic D. Bushman, Aldons J. Lusis, Stanley L. Hazen

Abstract

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed. In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

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Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 43 4%
Germany 6 <1%
Italy 5 <1%
Canada 5 <1%
United Kingdom 5 <1%
Japan 5 <1%
Australia 4 <1%
Spain 3 <1%
France 3 <1%
Other 27 3%
Unknown 874 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 243 25%
Student > Ph. D. Student 238 24%
Student > Master 106 11%
Student > Bachelor 105 11%
Other 64 7%
Other 224 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 489 50%
Medicine and Dentistry 254 26%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 61 6%
Chemistry 50 5%
Immunology and Microbiology 24 2%
Other 102 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 859. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 March 2017.
All research outputs
#1,946
of 7,436,163 outputs
Outputs from Nature Medicine
#5
of 4,245 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#30
of 115,925 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Nature Medicine
#1
of 119 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,436,163 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,245 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 24.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 115,925 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 119 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.